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Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 49, Supplement 1, pp 195–204 | Cite as

Index of glucose effectiveness derived from oral glucose tolerance test

  • Shoichiro Nagasaka
  • Ikuyo Kusaka
  • Koh Yamashita
  • Yoshiko Funase
  • Keishi Yamauchi
  • Masafumi Katakura
  • Shun Ishibashi
  • Toru AizawaEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Aim of this study was to formulate an index for glucose effectiveness (Sg), SgIo, based on 3-point (0, 30 and 120 min) 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The equation for SgIO was developed in the Chikuma cohort (n = 502). Firstly, post-loading plasma glucose without insulin action and Sg (PPG-without insulin and Sg) was calculated as follows: fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) + [0.75 × 75,000]/[0.19 × BW(kg) × 10]. Secondly, ‘PPG-without insulin/with Sg’ was obtained from inverse correlation between log10DIO and 2-h post-glucose plasma glucose at OGTT (2hPG) in each glucose tolerance category: DIO denotes oral disposition index, a product of the Matsuda Index and δIRI0–30/δPG0–30. Thirdly, expected 2hPG (2hPGE) of a given subject was obtained from the regression, and the ratio of 2hPG to 2hPGE (2hPG/2hPGE) was determined as an adjustment factor. Lastly, SgIO ([mg/dl]/min) was calculated as \( \frac{{[{\text{PPG}} \hbox{-} {\text{without}}\;{\text{insulin}}\;{\text{and}}\;{\text{Sg}}] - [{\text{PPG}} \hbox{-} {\text{without}}\;{\text{insulin}}/{\text{with}}\;{\text{Sg}}] \times [(2{\text{hPG}})/(2{\text{hPG}}_{\text{E}})]}}{120} \). SgIO was validated against Sg obtained by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in the Jichi cohort (n = 205). Also, the accuracy of prediction of Sg by SgIo was tested by the Bland–Altman plot. SgIO was 3.61 ± 0.73, 3.17 ± 0.74 and 2.15 ± 0.60 in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), non-diabetic hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively, in the Chikuma cohort. In the Jichi cohort, SgIO was significantly correlated with Sg in the entire group (r = 0.322, P < 0.001) and in subjects with NGT (r = 0.286, P < 0.001), and SgIo accurately predicted Sg. In conclusion, SgIO could be a simple, quantitative index for Sg.

Keywords

Glucose effectiveness Insulin Diabetes 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

NGT

Normal glucose tolerance

NDH

Non-diabetic hyperglycemia

IFG

Impaired fasting glucose

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

DM

Diabetes mellitus

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes

FSIVGTT

Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test

OGTT

Oral glucose tolerance test

IRI

Immunoreactive insulin

PPG

Post-loading plasma glucose

FPG

Fasting plasma glucose

2hPG

2-h post-glucose PG

2hPGE

Expected 2hPG

Sg

Glucose effectiveness

SgIO

Oral Sg index

SgIVG

Sg determined by FSIVGTT or the clamp method

SI

Insulin sensitivity index

DI

Disposition index

DIO

Oral disposition index

ISIMatsuda

Insulin sensitivity determined by Matsuda Index

SMA

Standardized major axis

SD

Standard deviation

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was in part supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Shoichiro Nagasaka). We thank Masayuki Yamada, Kissei Pharmaceuticals, for invaluable advice regarding statistics.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shoichiro Nagasaka
    • 1
  • Ikuyo Kusaka
    • 1
  • Koh Yamashita
    • 2
  • Yoshiko Funase
    • 2
  • Keishi Yamauchi
    • 2
  • Masafumi Katakura
    • 3
  • Shun Ishibashi
    • 1
  • Toru Aizawa
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diabetes Center, Department of MedicineJichi Medical UniversityShimotsukeJapan
  2. 2.Aizawa Hospital Diabetes CenterMatsumotoJapan
  3. 3.Department of MedicineChikuma Central HospitalChikumaJapan

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