Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 183–189 | Cite as

Effects of exercise on inflammation markers in type 2 diabetic subjects

  • E. HoppsEmail author
  • B. Canino
  • G. Caimi
Review Article


Endothelial dysfunction and plasma markers of inflammation are significantly increased in type 2 diabetics. Several proinflammatory cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and cell adhesion molecules, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukines (IL), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), seem to play a role in the low-grade systemic inflammation observed in these subjects. Lifestyle changes are necessary to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Physical exercise is known to reduce markers of inflammation by decreasing adipocytokine production and cytokine release from skeletal muscles, endothelial cells, and immune system and also improving antioxidant status. In type 2 diabetics, aerobic and resistance training have different effects on cytokine levels, and the differences in the modalities of exercise (type, duration, and intensity) and especially in the examined population could produce different results. Recent research showed that combined exercise has greater anti-inflammatory effects than aerobic or resistance exercise alone causing a deepest decrease in CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, leptin, and resistin and a higher increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and adiponectin.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus Aerobic exercise Resistance exercise Inflammation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Malattie Cardiovascolari e NefrourologicheUniversità degli Studi di PalermoPalermoItaly

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