Effect of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on mediators of endothelial dysfunction, markers of angiogenesis and inflammatory cytokines in type-2 diabetes
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PPAR-γ agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) on mediators of endothelial dysfunction and markers of angiogenesis in patients with type-2 diabetes. Pioglitazone group showed favorable reductions in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and increase in HDL cholesterol as compared to rosiglitazone group, after 16 weeks of treatment and also with control group. There was significant reduction of CRP level in pioglitazone and rosiglitazone group. The level of serum TNF-α decreased significantly in pioglitazone and mildly decreased in rosiglitazone group. The level of VEGF, IL-8 and Angiogenin were increased in pioglitazone than rosiglitazone group. There were no significant changes observed in the serum angiogenin and IL-8 levels in the control group. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone therapy in type-2 diabetes subjects have additional benefits of reducing mediators of endothelial dysfunction. Increase in angiogenesis markers in patients receiving pioglitazone could have variable effects in diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy as there may be increased vascular neogenesis. Pioglitazone has advantage over rosiglitazone in lowering lipid and proinflammatory cytokines.