Body composition changes following laparoscopic gastric banding for morbid obesity
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Most reports of outcome following obesity surgery report weight and co-morbidity changes only. We studied body composition changes in 17 adult patients (15 F, 2 M, age 43±2 years, range 28–58 years), with morbid obesity (initial BMI 40.4±4.9 kg/m2, range 34.7–48.8) who were managed surgically by laparoscopically inserting an adjustable gastric band. Body composition was studied before and after surgery (mean interval of 909±51 days, range 441–1,155 days) using anthropometry (abdominal circumference, AC, sum of four skinfold thicknesses, SFSUM), whole-body potassium counting (TBK), in vivo neutron activation analysis total body nitrogen (TBProtein) and whole-body dual-energy ray absorptiometry (total body percent fat TBF%, and total body bone mineral density TBBMD). Weight loss over the study period was 23.4±2.5 kg. (p<0.0003) with an AC reduction of 20.0±4.5 cm (p<0.008). Both SFSUM and TBF% were significantly reduced (p<0.02 and p<0.0005 respectively). Both TBK and TBProtein after normalization for sex and height, were significantly (p<0.0054 and p<0.001 respectively) reduced, but the ratio of loss of fat mass to fat-free mass, at 4.4:1 was usual for weight loss, and there was no significant changes in the ratio of potassium to protein. TBBMD, after normalization relative to a young same sex adult, was not significantly changed. In this group of patients, most of the substantial weight loss over a 2- to 3-year period was due to loss of fat mass, with relatively less reduction in the components of fat-free mass. Adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding induces fat loss without significant other deleterious effects on body composition.