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The correlation between the femoral anterior cruciate ligament footprint area and the morphology of the distal femur: three-dimensional CT evaluation in cadaveric knees

  • Makoto SurugaEmail author
  • Takashi Horaguchi
  • Takanori Iriuchishima
  • Genki Iwama
  • Yoshiyuki Yahagi
  • Yasuaki Tokuhashi
  • Shin Aizawa
Original Article • KNEE - ANATOMY
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Abstract

Backgrounds

“Anatomical” anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is defined as the functional restoration of the ACL to its native dimensions. It is essential to obtain more accurate predictors of ACL size before surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the native femoral ACL footprint size and the morphology of the distal femur using three-dimensional CT (3D-CT).

Methods

Thirty non-paired Japanese human cadaver knees were used. All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ACL. For the evaluation of femoral condyle morphology, trans-epicondylar length (TEL), notch outlet length, axial notch area, and notch width index were measured using 3D-CT. The ACL was cut in the middle, and the femoral bone was cut at the most proximal point of the femoral notch. The ACL was carefully dissected, and the boundaries of the ACL insertion site were outlined on the femoral side. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle was photographed with a digital camera. The size of the femoral ACL footprint, length of Blumensaat’s line, and the height and area of the lateral wall of the femoral intercondylar notch were measured with ImageJ software.

Results

Notch height, lateral notch area, and TEL were significantly correlated with the femoral ACL footprint area. Both axial notch area and notch outlet length were significantly correlated with the femoral mid-substance insertion area.

Conclusion

Morphological evaluation using 3D-CT preoperatively may be useful in predicting the femoral ACL footprint size.

Keywords

Anterior cruciate ligament Anteromedial bundle Posterolateral bundle Fan-like extension fibers Mid-substance 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial relationships to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNihon University HospitalTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryKamimoku Hot Springs HospitalMinakamiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryKawaguchi Municipal Medical CenterKawaguchiJapan
  5. 5.Department of Functional MorphologyNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan

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