Maximum loading of carpal bones during movements: a finite element study

  • H. Oflaz
  • I. GunalEmail author
Original Article • WRIST - BIOMECHANICS



Maximum stresses show critical points on an object because failure may start from the area close to maximum stress points. However, there appears no study on maximum loading points of carpal bones.


To clarify the loading pattern of each carpal bone during wrist movements.


A finite element wrist model was designed using a three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic images from the distal end of radius and ulna to the proximal third of metacarpals. Loading was performed in neutral, 45° of flexion and extension, 5° of radial and 25° of ulnar deviation, and maximum loading points were plotted.


In each position except for extension, minimum loads were carried by triquetrum, while minimum loads were carried by capitatum in extension. Maximum loads were carried by trapezium in neutral and ulnar deviation and flexion but by scaphoideum in radial deviation and extension.


Studies on maximum loading of each bone are a new approach and may help to improve the knowledge on wrist mechanics.


Finite element modeling Wrist biomechanics Maximum loading 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HGO Ind. and Trade Inc.IzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsDokuz Eylul University HospitalGuzelbahceTurkey

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