Complete paralysis of the quadriceps secondary to post-traumatic iliopsoas hematoma: a systematic review
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Paralysis of the femoral nerve secondary to compression by a hematoma of the iliopsoas is rarely post-traumatic. The acute surgical removal of hematoma seems the treatment of choice. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the optimal delay between the trauma and surgery, to obtain a total functional recovery.
A search was performed via PubMed. The inclusion criteria were the studies in English language, reporting the results of the treatment of femoral nerve palsy secondary to compression by a post-traumatic hematoma of the iliopsoas. The primary evaluation criterion was the clinical recovery of femoral nerve function. The secondary criteria were the delay of recovery and the delay between the trauma and surgery.
Thirteen studies were identified, only case reports. Sixteen patients were included, mean age 16.6 ± 3.4 years, 11 men and 5 women. The injury was associated with the sports practice in 12/16 (75 %) cases. Neurological symptoms developed about 5 days after injury. Femoral palsy was complete in 8 patients and partial in 8 patients. The mean delay between the injury and the diagnosis was 7.3 (2–25) days in conservative group and 17.8 (4–45) days in surgical group. Seven patients were managed conservatively, 6 partial paralysis and 1 total paralysis, and 9 surgically, 7 total paralysis and 2 partial paralysis. The recovery was total in 13/14 patients (seven surgical treatment and six conservative management) and partial in one patient who was managed conservatively despite a total paralysis. The delay of total recovery varied from 1 month to 6 weeks in conservative group and 3 months to 2 years in surgical group.
This systematic review seems to indicate that whatever the delay, surgery is necessary in case of complete paralysis of the femoral nerve secondary to compression from a post-traumatic hematoma of the iliopsoas muscle.
Level of evidence V
Systematic review of Level-V Studies.
KeywordsPost-traumatic iliopsoas hematoma Complete paralysis of the quadriceps Femoral nerve palsy
Conflict of interest
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