Demineralized bone matrix, bone morphogenetic proteins, and animal models of spine fusion: an overview
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Preclinical investigations on the use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in the spine have yielded promising results. This has led to the preliminary introduction of these growth factors in controlled clinical trials. Initial data made available suggest that these differentiating factors will play a major role in the treatment of spinal disorders in the future. This article reviews key preclinical studies and their results that formed the basis for introduction into clinical trials. Non-primate and non-human primate models of spine fusion with BMP are reviewed objectively, and important issues regarding carrier, dose, and site of implantation are discussed. Finally, exciting new gene therapy research is discussed, with comments made on its applicability for the future.