As adult spinal deformity surgery is performed more and more, the spine surgeon is faced with the challenge to treat pseudoarthrosis. The presentation may vary, from asymptomatic patients, who should be observed in most of the cases, to patients with acute episode of broken rods, and or chronic pain with often trunk imbalance. In some instances, patients will present with neurologic symptoms. The evaluation of such patients must start with a good understanding of why the surgery failed first place. Poor host, smoking, lack of anterior column support, poor sagittal balance, lack of fusion, poor construct. Often a combination of all of the above is encountered. The workup for such cases consists of imaging studies (with often a CT myelogram as the excessive metal artifact will render the MRI imaging useless), nutrition labs, DEXA scan, EOS films and internal medicine or cardiology consult for risk stratification as this may represent major surgery. Indication of surgery is mostly based on pain and imbalance and/or poor function. The surgeon planning a revision adult deformity surgery has many tasks to perform: Identify and avoid the reasons that lead to failure of the previous surgeries. Plan the anterior column reconstruction either through posterior or anterior interbody fusion. Restore the global alignment through anterior or posterior osteotomies to achieve sagittal and coronal balance. Obtain a solid fixation with sufficient levels above and below the osteotomies sites with in some cases the use of pelvic screws and four rods (Quad-Rod) techniques. The use of bone graft (either autologous, allograft, bone graft enhancers and inducer) agents. The requirement of decompression either through a virgin spine or a previous laminectomy bed. Despite the extent of these surgeries and the potential for immediate postoperative complications, the outcome is in most cases satisfactory if these goals are achieved. In this review, the authors explore different scenarios for pseudoarthrosis in the adult spine deformity patient and the preferred treatment method to obtain the best outcome for every individual patient.
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Sherif, S., Arlet, V. Revision surgery for non-union in adult spinal deformity. Eur Spine J 29, 103–115 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06331-9
- Adult spinal deformity
- Revision spinal surgery
- Non-union in adult spinal deformity
- Overpowering posterior instrumentation
- ALIF with hyperlordotic cage