European Spine Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 241–249 | Cite as

The association of back muscle strength and sarcopenia-related parameters in the patients with spinal disorders

  • Hiromitsu ToyodaEmail author
  • Masatoshi Hoshino
  • Shoichiro Ohyama
  • Hidetomi Terai
  • Akinobu Suzuki
  • Kentaro Yamada
  • Shinji Takahashi
  • Kazunori Hayashi
  • Koji Tamai
  • Yusuke Hori
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
Original Article



To evaluate the correlations between back muscle strength, trunk muscle mass, and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders.


This cross-sectional observational study included 230 consecutive patients with spinal disorders who visited our outpatient clinic (age range 65–92 years). We measured back muscle strength, handgrip strength, gait speed, and appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass using bioimpedance analysis. We classified the subjects into the sarcopenia, dynapenia, or normal stages in accordance with the guidelines set by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, and used the cutoff values reported in the guidelines set by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.


Back muscle strength was significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.39, P < 0.001), handgrip strength (males: r = 0.67, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.59, P < 0.001), and gait speed (males: r = 0.49, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.51, P < 0.001). The respective incidences of the sarcopenia, dynapenia, and normal stages were 16.4%, 26.7%, and 56.9% for males, and 23.7%, 50.9%, and 25.4% for females. Dynapenia was significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Back muscle strength in the normal group was significantly greater than that in the sarcopenic and dynapenic groups.


Back muscle strength is significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders. Back muscle strength in the sarcopenic stage is significantly lesser than that in the normal stage. Although sarcopenia is a multifaceted geriatric syndrome, spinal disorders might be one of the risk factors for disease-related sarcopenia.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved from Electronic Supplementary Material.


Sarcopenia Dynapenia Back muscle strength Skeletal muscle Spinal disorders 



We would like to acknowledge the surgeons and patients who contributed data to this study. The manuscript does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s). We thank Kelly Zammit, BVSc, from Edanz Group (, for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

586_2018_5858_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (155 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 155 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiromitsu Toyoda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masatoshi Hoshino
    • 1
  • Shoichiro Ohyama
    • 1
  • Hidetomi Terai
    • 1
  • Akinobu Suzuki
    • 1
  • Kentaro Yamada
    • 1
  • Shinji Takahashi
    • 1
  • Kazunori Hayashi
    • 1
  • Koji Tamai
    • 1
  • Yusuke Hori
    • 1
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan

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