European Spine Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 2999–3006 | Cite as

Prehospital care of spinal injuries: a historical quest for reasoning and evidence

  • J. G. ten BrinkeEmail author
  • S. R. Groen
  • M. Dehnad
  • T. P. Saltzherr
  • M. Hogervorst
  • J. C. Goslings
Review Article



The practice of prehospital immobilization is coming under increasing scrutiny. Unravelling the historical sequence of prehospital immobilization might shed more light on this matter and help resolve the situation. Main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the development and reasoning behind the implementation of prehospital spine immobilization.


An extensive search throughout historical literature and recent evidence based studies was conducted.


The history of treating spinal injuries dates back to prehistoric times. Descriptions of prehospital spinal immobilization are more recent and span two distinct periods. First documentation of its use comes from the early 19th century, when prehospital trauma care was introduced on the battlefields of the Napoleonic wars. The advent of radiology gradually helped to clarify the underlying pathology. In recent decades, adoption of advanced trauma life support has elevated in-hospital trauma-care to an high standard. Practice of in-hospital spine immobilization in case of suspected injury has also been implemented as standard-care in prehospital setting. Evidence for and against prehospital immobilization is equally divided in recent evidence-based studies. In addition, recent studies have shown negative side-effects of immobilisation in penetrating injuries.


Although widely implementation of spinal immobilization to prevent spinal cord injury in both penetrating and blunt injury, it cannot be explained historically. Furthermore, there is no high-level scientific evidence to support or reject immobilisation in blunt injury. Since evidence in favour and against prehospital immobilization is equally divided, the present situation appears to have reached something of a deadlock.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.


Spine Immobilization Prehospital Trauma Emergency 



Advanced Trauma Life Support


Cervical collar


Cervical spine injury


Cervical spine


European Trauma Course


National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study


Prehospital Trauma Life Support


United States


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

586_2018_5762_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (133 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 133 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trauma Unit, Department of SurgeryAcademic Medical Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryGelre HospitalsApeldoornThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryOnze Lieve Vrouwe GasthuisAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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