CT for thoracic and lumbar spine fractures: Can CT findings accurately predict posterior ligament complex injury?
- 618 Downloads
This study aims to determine whether secondary CT findings can predict posterior ligament complex (PLC) injury in patients with acute thoracic (T) or lumbar (L) spine fractures.
This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with acute thoracic and lumbar spine fractures on CT, with MRI as the reference standard for PLC injury. Three readers graded CT for facet joint alignment (FJA), widening (FJW), pedicle or lamina fracture (PLF), spinous fracture (SPF), interspinous widening (ISW), vertebral translation (VBT), and posterior endplate fracture (PEF). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each reader to test for associations between CT and PLC injury, and diagnostic performance of CT was calculated.
Fifty-three of 105 patients had PLC injury by MRI. Statistically significant predictors of PLC injury were VBT, PLF, ISW, and SPF. Using these four CT findings, odds of PLC injury ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 for one positive finding, but increased to 13.6–25.1 for two or more. At least one positive CT finding was found to yield average sensitivity of 82% and specificity 59%, while two or more yielded sensitivity 46% and specificity 88%.
While no individual CT finding is sufficiently accurate to diagnose or exclude PLC injury, greater the number of positive CT findings (VBT, PLF, ISW, and SPF), the higher the odds of PLC injury. The presence of a single abnormal CT finding may warrant confirmatory MRI for PLC injury, while two or more CT findings may have adequate specificity to avoid need for MRI prior to surgical intervention.
KeywordsSpine trauma Posterior ligament complex Spine stability Spine fracture Compression fracture
The authors want to thank Heidi Miracle for her assistance with data analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The study was approved by the IRB, and the authors have no relevant conflicts of interest or copyright constraints.
- 24.van Middendorp JJ, Patel AA, Schuetz M, Joaquim AF (2012) The precision, accuracy and validity of detecting posterior ligamentous complex injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine: a critical appraisal of the literature. Eur Spine J Off Publ Eur Spine Soc Eur Spinal Deform Soc Eur Sect Cerv Spine Res Soc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-012-2602-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Pizones J, Izquierdo E, Sánchez-Mariscal F, Zúñiga L, Álvarez P, Gómez-Rice A (2012) Sequential damage assessment of the different components of the posterior ligamentous complex after magnetic resonance imaging interpretation: prospective study 74 traumatic fractures. Spine 37(11):E662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Sixta S, Moore FO, Ditillo MF et al (2012) Screening for thoracolumbar spinal injuries in blunt trauma: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 73(5 Suppl 4):S326–S332. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31827559b8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar