Assessment of curve progression on children with idiopathic scoliosis using ultrasound imaging method
- 17 Downloads
To investigate the threshold of the curve difference on ultrasound measurement relative to the previous radiographic measurements to detect curves progression in children who have idiopathic scoliosis (IS).
Two hundred children with IS (F:170, M:30; mean age: 14.6 ± 1.9) were recruited from a single center. A retrospective study on comparing the current ultrasound measurements with the previous radiographic measurements with threshold values from 3° to 8° to detect curve progression was conducted. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, accuracy (ACC), and odd ratio (OR) were calculated to determine the optimal threshold value of the curve differences between ultrasound and previous radiographic measurement.
Both thresholds of 4° and 5° for curve difference from ultrasound scans presented the sensitivities ≥ 0.90 and specificities ≥ 0.85, and can reduce by 73 and 79% of radiographs on the studied subjects, respectively. Especially, for 4° threshold, the negative likelihood ratio (LR−) was only 0.08, which indicated that there is only 8% probability that the subject has progressed if the US measurement detected non-progression.
The ultrasound imaging method can be applied to identify curve progression in children with IS. Four degree is the preferred threshold value to detect the curve which had progressed, since it also had the lower rate of undetected progressed cases (false negatives).
KeywordsCurve progression Ultrasonic imaging method Threshold of curve progression Sensitivity and specificity Idiopathic scoliosis
This study was supported through funding provided by Scoliosis Research Society and the Women and Children’s Health Research Institute.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any potential conflict of interest.
- 1.Bunnell WP (1988) The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. Clin Orthop 229:20–25Google Scholar
- 3.Cobb JR (1948) Outline for the study of scoliosis. Am Acad Orthop Surg Instr Course Lect 5:261–275Google Scholar
- 12.Zheng R, Chan ACY, Chen W, Hill DL, Le LH, Hedden D et al (2015) Intra- and inter-rater reliability of coronal curvature measurement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using ultrasonic imaging method—a pilot study. Spine Deform 3:151–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2014.08.008CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Zheng R, Young M, Hill D, Le LH, Hedden D, Moreau M et al (2016) Improvement on the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound coronal curvature measurement on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the aid of previous radiographs. Spine 41:404–411. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Zheng Y-P, Lee TT-Y, Lai KK-L, Yip BH-K, Zhou G-Q, Jiang W-W et al (2016) A reliability and validity study for scolioscan: a radiation-free scoliosis assessment system using 3D ultrasound imaging. Scoliosis Spinal Disord 11:13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13013-016-0074-yCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 21.Dougls G Altman, David Machin, Trevor N Bryant, Martin J Gardner (2000) Statistics with confidence: confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. 2nd ed. BMJGoogle Scholar