The change of cervical spine alignment along with aging in asymptomatic population: a preliminary analysis
- 314 Downloads
A cross-sectional study.
To investigate the correlation of cervical spine alignment changes with aging in asymptomatic population.
Previous studies demonstrated the influence of lumbar and thoracic spine on cervical spine alignment, but few has reported the cervical spine alignment change along with aging in asymptomatic population.
Asymptomatic population were divided into four groups according to different ages (Group A: ≤20 years; Group B: 21–40 years; Group C: 41–60 years; Group D: ≥61 years). Each group was composed of 30 subjects. The following parameters were measured: C0–1 Cobb angle, C1–2 Cobb angle, C2–7 Cobb angle, C1–7 sagittal vertical axis (C1–7 SVA), C2–7 SVA, central of gravity to C7 sagittal vertical axis (CG–C7 SVA), Thoracic Inlet Angle (TIA), Neck Tilt (NT), cervical tilt, cranial tilt, T1 slope (TS), TS-CL, and ANOVA statistical method was used to analyze the differences among four groups, and then, linear regression analysis was performed to analyze correlation of the cervical spine alignment with the aging.
C1–7 SVA, C2–7 SVA, CG–C7 SVA, TIA, NT, TS, and cranial tilt were found statistically different among four groups (P < 0.01). From Group A to Group D, the mean C1–7 SVA were 30.7, 26.0, 21.8, and 36.9 mm, the mean C2–7 SVA were 18.7, 14.7, 11.9, and 24.7 mm, and the mean CG–C7 SVA were 19.6, 16.6, 9.4, and 26.7 mm. The mean TIA were 62.4°, 65.0°, 71.8°, and 76.9°, the mean NT were 39.4°, 43.8°, 46.3°, and 48.2°, the mean TS were 23.0°, 21.1°, 25.5°, and 28.7°, and the mean cranial tilt were 5.7°, 4.8°, 3.0°, and 9.5°. Further linear regression indicated that TIA (r = 0.472; P < 0.0001), NT (r = 0.337; P = 0.0006), and TS (r = 0.299; P = 0.0025) were positively correlated with aging.
A gradual increase of TIA, NT, and TS, accompanied with an increased CL, is found along with aging in asymptomatic population, among which TIA, NT, and TS are significantly correlated with physiological nature of aging.
KeywordsCervical spine alignment Radiology Aging Asymptomatic population
Funding was provided by 5511 innovation-driven program of Jiangxi Province Department of Science and Technology (Grant No. 20165BCB18017), National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) (Grant No. 81460405), Key Program of Jaingxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology (Grant No. 20152ACB21024), and Research Program of Health and Family Planning Commission of Jiangxi Province (Grant Nos. 20155087, 20155110).
Complaiance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.
- 2.Protopsaltis TS, Scheer JK, Terran JS, Smith JS, Hamilton DK, Kim HJ, Mundis GM Jr, Hart RA, McCarthy IM, Klineberg E, Lafage V, Bess S, Schwab F, Shaffrey CI, Ames CP, International Spine Study Group (2015) How the neck affects the back: changes in regional cervical sagittal alignment correlate to HRQOL improvement in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up. J Neurosurg Spine 23(2):153–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Smith JS, Lafage V, Schwab FJ, Shaffrey CI, Protopsaltis T, Klineberg E, Gupta M, Scheer JK, Fu KM, Mundis G, Hostin R, Deviren V, Hart R, Burton DC, Bess S, Ames CP, International Spine Study Group (2014) Prevalence and type of cervical deformity among 470 adults with thoracolumbar deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 39(17):E1001–E1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Yukawa Y, Kato F, Suda K, Yamagata M, Ueta T, Yoshida M (2016) Normative data for parameters of sagittal spinal alignment in healthy subjects: an analysis of gender specific differences and changes with aging in 626 asymptomatic individuals. Eur Spine J. doi: 10.1007/s00586-016-4807-7 Google Scholar
- 18.Donk RD, Fehlings MG, Verhagen WI, Arnts H, Groenewoud H, Verbeek AL, Bartels RH (2017) An assessment of the most reliable method to estimate the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine: analysis of a prospective cohort of 138 cases. J Neurosurg Spine 26(5):572–576. doi: 10.3171/2016.10.SPINE16632 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar