European Spine Journal

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 3577–3582 | Cite as

Evaluation of forward head posture in sitting and standing positions

  • B. Shaghayegh fard
  • Amir AhmadiEmail author
  • N. Maroufi
  • J. Sarrafzadeh
Original Article



Head postural assessment is part of the orthopaedic physical examination process and could help to identify faulty head postures. One of the most common faulty postures of the craniocervical region is the forward head posture (FHP). There are several methods to evaluate FHP but it is not clear which method is more precise. The aim of this study was to compare the craniovertebral angle (CVA) between a FHP and a healthy group in sitting and standing positions.


Twenty-five subjects with FHP (22.9 ± 2 years) and 25 normal subjects (21.9 ± 5 years) participated in this case–control study. Photography of the sagittal view was done in standing and relaxed sitting postures to determine the amount of the FHP.


The results of independent t test showed a significant difference in the CVA between the FHP and healthy groups (P < 0.001). The result of paired t test showed a significant difference between CVA in standing and sitting postures for both groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the BMI had a significant negative correlation with CVA in standing position (P < 0.01).


Our results indicated that the CVA was increased in the sitting posture compared to the standing posture and introduced the standing posture as a more sensitive posture to evaluate the FHP.


Forward head posture Position Cervical spine Craniovertebral angle 



The findings of this article were part of a MSc. thesis which was financially supported by Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Complaince with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Shaghayegh fard
    • 1
  • Amir Ahmadi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • N. Maroufi
    • 1
  • J. Sarrafzadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation SciencesIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Iranian Center of Excellence in PhysiotherapyTehranIran

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