European Spine Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 10, pp 2249–2255 | Cite as

Biomechanical characteristics of cement/gelatin mixture for prevention of cement leakage in vertebral augmentation

  • Bin Meng
  • Ming Qian
  • Shao-Xiang Xia
  • Hui-Lin Yang
  • Zong-Ping LuoEmail author
Original Article



This study evaluated whether or not the addition of gelatin micro-particles into the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) could reduce cement infiltration in cancellous bone of vertebra.


Gelatin micro-particles were prepared in various sizes and mixed with PMMA in different densities. Dynamic viscosity of the mixture was measured by a rotational rheometer. Fresh bovine vertebral bodies were sectioned into cylindrical samples. Permeability of the mixture through the samples was tested on a mechanical test machine, and calculated using Darcy’s law. The PMMA/gelatin mixture also underwent compressive and bending tests, and their structures were examined by scanning electron microscopy.


The cement/gelatin mixture increased the viscosity. Significant reduction of cement permeability in cancellous bone was determined after the addition of the micro-particles. Micro-particles of 2 % in density and 125–250 μm in size decreased the permeability by 1/3 without any significant change of the cement viscosity. The biomechanical strength was unchanged in compression but decreased by up to 20 % in bending.


Gelatin micro-particles significantly increased the cement viscosity, reduced the permeability in cancellous bone of vertebra, decreased the flexural strength, but did not affect the compressive strength. Although it suggested a manageable approach in vertebral augmentation, the outcome should be further verified on a cadaveric model or an animal model before the mixture could be used safely and effectively in the clinical treatment.


PMMA Gelatin Vertebra Augmentation Biomechanics 



This work is supported by Grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11072165, 81071451 & 31270995).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bin Meng
    • 1
  • Ming Qian
    • 1
  • Shao-Xiang Xia
    • 1
  • Hui-Lin Yang
    • 1
  • Zong-Ping Luo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedics of 1st Affiliated Hospital and Orthopedic InstituteSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina

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