A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery
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Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case–control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treatment protocol would improve pain treatment in this population.
A new regimen with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, gabapentin, S-ketamine, dexamethasone, ondansetron and epidural local anesthetic infusion or patient controlled analgesia with morphine, was introduced in a post-intervention group of 41 consecutive patients undergoing multilevel (median 10) instrumented spinal fusions and compared with 44 patients in a pre-intervention group.
Compared to patients in the pre-intervention group, patients treated according to the new protocol consumed less opioid on postoperative day (POD) 1 (P = 0.024) and 2 (P = 0.048), they were mobilized earlier from bed (P = 0.003) and ambulation was earlier both with and without a walking frame (P = 0.027 and P = 0.027, respectively). Finally, patients following the new protocol experienced low intensities of nausea, sedation and dizziness on POD 1–6.
In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved postoperative mobilization and presented concomitant low levels of nausea, sedation and dizziness.
KeywordsMajor spine surgery Multimodal pain treatment Opioid consumption Mobilization
Conflict of interest
Benny Dahl is funded by a grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council (#2142-08-0017). No other funding was received for the study.
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