European Spine Journal

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 1769–1776

Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain and its relationship with relaxin levels during pregnancy: a systematic review

  • Daniela Aldabe
  • Daniel Cury Ribeiro
  • Stephan Milosavljevic
  • Melanie Dawn Bussey
Review Article



The present systematic review assessed the level of evidence for the association between relaxin levels and pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) during pregnancy.


PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this systematic review. Electronic search was carried out using six different databases. Observational cohorts, cross-sectional or case–control studies focused on the association between relaxin levels and PPGP during pregnancy were included. Studies selection was conducted by two reviewers who screened firstly for titles, then for abstracts and finally for full articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale and the quality of evidence by the guidelines proposed by the Cochrane back review group.


731 references were identified. Six articles met the inclusion criteria and were considered for this systematic review. The main reason for the studies exclusion was PPGP related to gynaecological reasons. Five studies were case–control and one study was a prospective cohort. Four studies were ranked as high while two were ranked as low quality. Among the high quality studies, three found no association between PPGP and relaxin levels.


Based on these findings, the level of evidence for the association between PPGP and relaxin levels was found to be low. PPGP assessment and controlling for risk factors were found to increase bias leaving uncertainty in interpretation of these findings and a need for further research.


Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain Relaxin Low back pain Pregnancy Systematic review 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniela Aldabe
    • 1
  • Daniel Cury Ribeiro
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stephan Milosavljevic
    • 2
  • Melanie Dawn Bussey
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physical EducationUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Centre for Physiotherapy Research, School of PhysiotherapyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Otago PolytechnicOtago Institute of Sport and AdventureDunedinNew Zealand

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