European Spine Journal

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 872–878 | Cite as

Reproducibility of the cervical range of motion (CROM) device for individuals with sub-acute whiplash associated disorders

  • Mark A. WilliamsEmail author
  • Esther Williamson
  • Simon Gates
  • Matthew W. Cooke
Original Article



The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the cervical range of motion device when measuring both active and passive range of motion in a group of individuals with sub-acute Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD).


Participants were recruited as part of a large multi-centre Randomised Controlled Trial from UK emergency departments. Experienced research physiotherapists measured active and passive cervical spine movements in all directions. Both intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement were assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and limits of agreement methods.


Different groups of 39 and 19 subjects were included in the intra and inter-observer studies, respectively. The CROM device demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement for all the active and passive half-cycle movements (ICC range 0.82–0.99) with the exception of one (passive right lateral flexion for inter-observer; ICC 0.77).


The CROM device has proven to be a reproducible measurement method for a symptomatic WAD population using the measurement protocol described and can be used with confidence to differentiate individuals according to a single measurement.


MeSH term ‘Reproducibility of results’ Cervical spine CROM 



The authors are grateful to all the participants of the study.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Williams
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esther Williamson
    • 1
  • Simon Gates
    • 1
  • Matthew W. Cooke
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Trials UnitWarwick Medical School, University of WarwickCoventryUK
  2. 2.Health Sciences Research InstituteWarwick Medical School, University of WarwickCoventryUK

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