European Spine Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 774–781 | Cite as

Determination of axial vertebral rotation in MR images: comparison of four manual and a computerized method

  • Tomaž Vrtovec
  • Franjo Pernuš
  • Boštjan Likar
Original Article


Axial vertebral rotation (AVR) of 14 normal and 14 scoliotic vertebrae from magnetic resonance (MR) images was determined by three observers using four manual methods and a computerized method, which were based on the evaluation of vertebral symmetry in two dimensions (2D) and in three dimensions (3D). The method of Aaro and Dahlborn proved to be the manual method with the highest intra-observer (1.7° SD) and inter-observer (1.2° SD) reliabilities, and was also most in agreement with the computerized method (1.3° SD, 1.0° MAD). The computerized method yielded higher intra-observer (1.3° SD) and inter-observer (1.4° SD) reliabilities than the manual methods, indicating it to be an efficient alternative for repeatable and reliable AVR measurements.


Spine Axial vertebral rotation Magnetic resonance imaging Manual methods Computerized methods 



This work has been supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology, Slovenia, under grants P2-0232, L2-7381, L2-9758, L2-2023, J2-0716 and J7-2246. The authors would like to thank R.Vengust (University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Slovenia) and D. Štern (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Slovenia) for performing manual measurements.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomaž Vrtovec
    • 1
  • Franjo Pernuš
    • 1
  • Boštjan Likar
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

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