Advertisement

European Spine Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 774–781 | Cite as

Determination of axial vertebral rotation in MR images: comparison of four manual and a computerized method

  • Tomaž Vrtovec
  • Franjo Pernuš
  • Boštjan Likar
Original Article

Abstract

Axial vertebral rotation (AVR) of 14 normal and 14 scoliotic vertebrae from magnetic resonance (MR) images was determined by three observers using four manual methods and a computerized method, which were based on the evaluation of vertebral symmetry in two dimensions (2D) and in three dimensions (3D). The method of Aaro and Dahlborn proved to be the manual method with the highest intra-observer (1.7° SD) and inter-observer (1.2° SD) reliabilities, and was also most in agreement with the computerized method (1.3° SD, 1.0° MAD). The computerized method yielded higher intra-observer (1.3° SD) and inter-observer (1.4° SD) reliabilities than the manual methods, indicating it to be an efficient alternative for repeatable and reliable AVR measurements.

Keywords

Spine Axial vertebral rotation Magnetic resonance imaging Manual methods Computerized methods 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology, Slovenia, under grants P2-0232, L2-7381, L2-9758, L2-2023, J2-0716 and J7-2246. The authors would like to thank R.Vengust (University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Slovenia) and D. Štern (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Slovenia) for performing manual measurements.

References

  1. 1.
    Aaro S, Dahlborn M (1981) Estimation of vertebral rotation and the spinal and rib cage deformity in scoliosis by computer-tomography. Spine 6:460–467. doi: 10.1097/00007632-198109000-00007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adam C, Askin G (2006) Automatic measurement of vertebral rotation in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 31:E80–E83. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000197653.64796.9d CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arlet V, Odent T, Aebi M (2003) Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J 12:456–463. doi: 10.1007/s00586-003-0555-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birchall D, Hughes DG, Hindle J, Robinson L, Williamson JB (1997) Measurement of vertebral rotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 22:2403–2407. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199710150-00016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birchall D, Hughes D, Gregson B, Williamson B (2005) Demonstration of vertebral and disc mechanical torsion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using three-dimensional MR imaging. Eur Spine J 14:123–129. doi: 10.1007/s00586-004-0705-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bland JM, Altman DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cousins JP, Haughton VM (2009) Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 17:22–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Göçen S, Aksu MG, Baktiroĝlu L, Ozcan O (1998) Evaluation of computed tomographic methods to measure vertebral rotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an intraobserver and interobserver analysis. J Spinal Disord 11:210–214. doi: 10.1097/00002517-199806000-00006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Göçen S, Havitçioglu H, Alici E (1999) A new method to measure vertebral rotation from CT scans. Eur Spine J 8:261–265. doi: 10.1007/s005860050170 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haughton V, Rogers B, Meyerand E, Resnick D (2002) Measuring the axial rotation of lumbar vertebrae in vivo with MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:1110–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho E, Upadhyay S, Chan F, Hsu L, Leong J (1993) New methods of measuring vertebral rotation from computed tomographic scans: an intraobserver and interobserver study on girls with scoliosis. Spine 18:1173–1177. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199307000-00008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kouwenhoven JW, Bartels L, Vincken K, Viergever M, Verbout A, Delhaas T, Castelein R (2007) The relation between organ anatomy and pre-existent vertebral rotation in the normal spine: magnetic resonance imaging study in humans with situs inversus totalis. Spine 32:1123–1128. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000261563.75469.b0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krismer M, Sterzinger W, Christian H, Frischhut B, Bauer R (1996) Axial rotation measurement of scoliotic vertebrae by means of computed tomography scans. Spine 21:576–581. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199603010-00009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Masharawi Y, Salame K, Mirovsky Y, Peleg S, Dar G, Steinberg N, Hershkovitz I (2008) Vertebral body shape variation in the thoracic and lumbar spine: characterization of its asymmetry and wedging. Clin Anat 21:46–54. doi: 10.1002/ca.20532 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panjabi MM, Takata K, Goel V, Federico D, Oxland T, Duranceau J, Krag M (1991) Thoracic human vertebrae. Quantitative three-dimensional anatomy. Spine 16:888–901. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199108000-00006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Panjabi MM, Goel V, Oxland T, Takata K, Duranceau J, Krag M, Price M (1992) Human lumbar vertebrae. Quantitative three-dimensional anatomy. Spine 17:299–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rogers B, Haughton V, Arfanakis K, Meyerand E (2002) Application of image registration to measurement of intervertebral rotation in the lumbar spine. Magn Reson Med 48:1072–1075. doi: 10.1002/mrm.10319 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skalli W, Lavaste F, Descrimes JL (1995) Quantification of three-dimensional vertebral rotations in scoliosis: what are the true values? Spine 20:546–553. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199503010-00008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stokes IAF (1994) Three-dimensional terminology of spinal deformity: a report presented to the Scoliosis Research Society by the Scoliosis Research Society Working Group on 3-D terminology of spinal deformity. Spine 19:236–248. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199401001-00020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vrtovec T, Pernuš F, Likar B (2008) A symmetry-based method for the determination of vertebral rotation in 3D. In: Metaxas D, Axel L, Davies B (eds) Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS): proceedings of the 11th medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention MICCAI 2008, Springer, New York, USA, vol 5241, pp 942–950. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-85988-8
  21. 21.
    Vrtovec T, Penuš F, Likar B (2009) A review of methods for quantitative evaluation of axial vertebral rotation. Eur Spine J 18:1079–1090. doi: 10.1007/s00586-009-0914-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomaž Vrtovec
    • 1
  • Franjo Pernuš
    • 1
  • Boštjan Likar
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations