European Spine Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp 1187–1193 | Cite as

Life dissatisfaction is associated with a poorer surgery outcome and depression among lumbar spinal stenosis patients: a 2-year prospective study

  • Sanna Sinikallio
  • Timo Aalto
  • Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen
  • Olavi Airaksinen
  • Arto Herno
  • Heikki Kröger
  • Heimo Viinamäki
Original Article


The aim of this study was to examine the life satisfaction of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients up to the 2-year postoperative phase. Patients (N = 102, mean age, 62 years) with symptomatic LSS underwent decompressive surgery. Data collection took place with the same set of questionnaires before surgery and 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Life satisfaction was assessed with the four-item Life Satisfaction scale and depression symptoms with the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In addition, a depression burden variable was included, comprising the sum of preoperative, 3- and 6-month BDI scores. Physical functioning and pain were assessed with the Oswestry disability index, Stucki questionnaire, self-reported walking ability, visual analogy scale and pain drawing. Two years postoperatively, 18% of the LSS patients was dissatisfied with their lives. As a whole, the life satisfaction of the LSS patients improved during the postoperative follow-up, reaching the level of the healthy adult Finnish population. However, 2 years postoperatively, dissatisfied patients reported significantly more pain, a poorer functional ability and more depressive symptoms and depression than the patients who were satisfied with life. This difference was seen throughout the postoperative follow up. In regression analyses, the only significant associations were between the depression burden and postoperative life dissatisfaction. Thus, subjective well-being as well as depression among LSS patients should be assessed pre- and postoperatively in order to enable early intervention for those at risk of poorer life satisfaction.


Spinal stenosis Life satisfaction Surgery outcome 2-Year follow-up Depressive symptoms 



S. Sinikallio was supported by a Kuopio University Hospital EVO research grant and a research grant from the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanna Sinikallio
    • 1
  • Timo Aalto
    • 2
    • 3
  • Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Olavi Airaksinen
    • 3
  • Arto Herno
    • 3
  • Heikki Kröger
    • 7
    • 8
  • Heimo Viinamäki
    • 6
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of RehabilitationKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Kyyhkylä Rehabilitation CenterMikkeliFinland
  3. 3.Department of Physical and Rehabilitation MedicineKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryLapland Hospital DistrictMuurolaFinland
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  7. 7.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  8. 8.The Bone and Cartilage Research UnitKuopio UniversityKuopioFinland
  9. 9.Kuopio UniversityKuopioFinland

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