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European Spine Journal

, Volume 17, Issue 9, pp 1256–1269 | Cite as

Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview

  • Samar HamidEmail author
  • Ray Hayek
Original Article

Abstract

Structural discontinuity in the spinal cord after injury results in a disruption in the impulse conduction resulting in loss of various bodily functions depending upon the level of injury. This article presents a summary of the scientific research employing electrical stimulation as a means for anatomical or functional recovery for patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Electrical stimulation in the form of functional electrical stimulation (FES) can help facilitate and improve upper/lower limb mobility along with other body functions lost due to injury e.g. respiratory, sexual, bladder or bowel functions by applying a controlled electrical stimulus to generate contractions and functional movement in the paralysed muscles. The available rehabilitative techniques based on FES technology and various Food and Drug Administration, USA approved neuroprosthetic devices that are in use are discussed. The second part of the article summarises the experimental work done in the past 2 decades to study the effects of weakly applied direct current fields in promoting regeneration of neurites towards the cathode and the new emerging technique of oscillating field stimulation which has shown to promote bidirectional regeneration in the injured nerve fibres. The present article is not intended to be an exhaustive review but rather a summary aiming to highlight these two applications of electrical stimulation and the degree of anatomical/functional recovery associated with these in the field of spinal cord injury research.

Keywords

Spinal cord injury Oscillating field stimulation Functional electrical stimulation Axonal regeneration Advances in spinal cord research 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental and Life SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

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