Advertisement

European Spine Journal

, Volume 17, Supplement 1, pp 123–152 | Cite as

Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders
  • Eric L. Hurwitz
  • Eugene J. Carragee
  • Gabrielle van der Velde
  • Linda J. Carroll
  • Margareta Nordin
  • Jaime Guzman
  • Paul M. Peloso
  • Lena W. Holm
  • Pierre Côté
  • Sheilah Hogg-Johnson
  • J. David Cassidy
  • Scott Haldeman
Best Evidence

Study Design.

Best evidence synthesis.

Objective.

To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders.

Summary of Background Data.

No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade.

Methods.

We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis.

Results.

Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus.

Conclusion.

Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions addressing self-efficacy. Future efforts should focus on the study of noninvasive interventions for patients with radicular symptoms and on the design and evaluation of neck pain prevention strategies.

Keywords

best evidence synthesis cervical spine neck pain whiplash-associated disorder 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, et al. (1995) Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders: redefining “whiplash” and its management. Spine 20:1S–73SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carragee EJ, Hurwitz EL, Cheng I, et al. Treatment of neck pain: Injections and surgical interventions. Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000 – 2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carroll LJ, Cassidy JD, Peloso PM, et al. (2008) Methods for the best evidence synthesis on neck pain and its associated disorders. The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine 33(Suppl):S33–S38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slavin RE (1995) Best evidence synthesis: an intelligent alternative to meta analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 48:9–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van der Velde G, van Tulder M, Côté P, et al. (2007) The sensitivity of review results to methods used to appraise and incorporate trial quality into data synthesis. Spine 32:796–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aaras A, Horgen G, Bjorset HH, et al. (1998) Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators before and after multidisciplinary ergonomic interventions. Appl Ergon 29:335–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aaras A, Horgen G, Bjorset HH, et al. (2001) Musculoskeletal, visual and psychosocial stress in VDU operators before and after multidisciplinary ergonomic interventions.A 6 years prospective study—Part II. Appl Ergon 32: 559–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Côté P, et al. (2007) Does multidisciplinary rehabilitation benefit whiplash recovery? Results of a population-based incidence cohort study. Spine 32:126–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gennis P, Miller L, Gallagher EJ, et al. (1996) The effect of soft cervical collars on persistent neck pain in patients with whiplash injury. Acad Emerg Med 3:568–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huston CW, Slipman CW, Garvin C (2005) Complications and side effects of cervical and lumbosacral selective nerve root injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:277–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee MJ, Bazaz R, Furey CG, et al. (2005) Influence of anterior cervical plate design on dysphagia: a 2-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study. J Spinal Disord Tech 18:406–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliveira A, Gevirtz R, Hubbard D (2006) A psycho-educational video used in the emergency department provides effective treatment for whiplash injuries. Spine 31:1652–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suissa S, Giroux M, Gervais M, et al. (2006) Assessing a whiplash management model: a population-based non-randomized intervention study. J Rheumatol 33:581–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thome C, Krauss JK, Zevgaridis D (2004) A prospective clinical comparison of rectangular titanium cages and iliac crest autograft in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Neurosurg Rev 27:34–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van den Heuvel SG, de Looze MP, Hildebrandt VH, et al. (2003) Effects of software programs stimulating regular breaks and exercises on work-related neck and upper-limb disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health 29: 106–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guzman J, Hurwitz EL, Carroll LJ, et al. (2008) A conceptual model for the course and care of neck pain, Results of The Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine 33(Suppl):S14–S23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Botwin KP, Castellanos R, Rao S, et al. (2003) Complications of fluoroscopically guided interlaminar cervical epidural injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:627–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martienssen J, Nilsson N (1989) Cerebrovascular accidents following upper cervical manipulation: the importance of age, gender and technique. Am J Chiropr Med 2:160–3Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M (1999) Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation. Spine 24:785–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rothwell DM, Bondy SJ, Williams JI (2001) Chiropractic manipulation and stroke: a population-based case-control study. Stroke 32:1054–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang MC, Chan L, Maiman DJ, et al. (2007) Complications and mortality associated with cervical spine surgery for degenerative disease in the United States. Spine 32:342–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Andersson HI, Ejlertsson G, Leden I, et al. (1999) Musculoskeletal chronic pain in general practice. Studies of health care utilisation in comparison with pain prevalence. Scand J Prim Health Care 17:87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bassols A, Bosch F, Banos JE (2002) How does the general population treat their pain? A survey in Catalonia, Spain. J Pain Symptom Manage 23:318–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borghouts JA, Koes BW, Vondeling H, et al. (1999) Cost-of-illness of neck pain in The Netherlands in 1996. Pain 80:629–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bot SD, van der Waal JM, Terwee CB, et al. (2005) Incidence and prevalence of complaints of the neck and upper extremity in general practice. Ann Rheum Dis 64:118–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freburger JK, Carey TS, Holmes GM (2005) Management of back and neck pain: who seeks care from physical therapists?. Phys Ther 85:872–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grooten WJ, Wiktorin C, Norrman L, et al. (2004) Seeking care for neck/shoulder pain: a prospective study of work-related risk factors in a healthy population. J Occup Environ Med 46:138–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hurwitz E, Coulter ID, Adams AH, et al. (1998) Use of chiropractic services from 1985 through 1991 in the United States and Canada. Am J Public Health 88:771–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rekola KE, Levoska S, Takala J, et al. (1997) Patients with neck and shoulder complaints and multisite musculoskeletal symptoms—a prospective study. J Rheumatol 24:2424–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riddle DL, Schappert SM (2007) Volume and characteristics of inpatient and ambulatory medical care for neck pain in the United States: data from three national surveys. Spine 32:132–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolsko PM, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, et al. (2003) Patterns and perceptions of care for treatment of back and neck pain: results of a national survey. Spine 28:292–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Côté P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, et al. (2005) Initial patterns of clinical care and recovery from whiplash injuries: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med 165:2257–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Côté P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, et al. (2007) Early aggressive care and delayed recovery from whiplash: isolated finding or reproducible results? Arthritis Care Res 57:861–8Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Michaelson P, Sjolander P, Johansson H. Factors predicting pain reduction in chronic back and neck pain after multimodal treatment. Clin J Pain 2004;447–54Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cleland JA, Glynn P, Whitman JM, et al. (2007) Short-term effects of thrust versus non thrust mobilization/manipulation directed at the thoracic spine in patients with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther 87:431–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Korthals-de Bos IB, Hoving JL, van Tulder MW, et al. (2003) Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 326:911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Manca A, Epstein DM, Torgerson DJ, et al. (2006) Randomized trial of a brief physiotherapy intervention compared with usual physiotherapy for neck pain patients: cost-effectiveness analysis. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 22:67–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Willich SN, Reinhold T, Selim D, et al. (2006) Cost-effectiveness of acupuncture treatment in patients with chronic neck pain. Pain 125:107–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Borghouts J, Janssen H, Koes B, et al. (1999) The management of chronic neck pain in general practice.Aretrospective study. Scand J Prim Health Care 17:215–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Van Rompay MI, et al. (2001) Perceptions about complementary therapies relative to conventional therapies among adults who use both: results from a national survey. Ann Intern Med 135: 344–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ma DJ, Gilula LA, Riew KD (2005) Complications of fluoroscopically guided extra foraminal cervical nerve blocks. An analysis of 1036 injections. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:1025–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ekberg K, Bjorkqvist B, Malm P, et al. (1994) Controlled two year follow up of rehabilitation for disorders in the neck and shoulders. Occup Environ Med 51:833–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hagberg M, Harms-Ringdahl K, Nisell R, et al. (2000) Rehabilitation of neck-shoulder pain in women industrial workers: a randomized trial comparing isometric shoulder endurance training with isometric shoulder strength training. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81:1051–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    He D, Veiersted KB, Hostmark AT, et al. (2004) Effect of acupuncture treatment on chronic neck and shoulder pain in sedentary female workers: a 6-month and 3-year follow-up study. Pain 109:299–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    He D, Hostmark AT, Veiersted KB, et al. (2005) Effect of intensive acupuncture on pain-related social and psychological variables for women with chronic neck and shoulder pain—an RCT with six month and three year follow up. Acupunct Med 23:52–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Horneij E, Hemborg B, Jensen I, et al. (2001) No significant differences between intervention programmes on neck, shoulder and low back pain: a prospective randomized study among home-care personnel. J Rehabil Med 33:170–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Karppinen K, Eklund S, Suoninen E, et al. (1999) Adjustment of dental occlusion in treatment of chronic cervicobrachial pain and headache. J Oral Rehabil 26:715–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Skillgate E, Vingard E, Alfredsson L (2007) Naprapathic manual treatment efficient for back and neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain 23:431–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Taimela S,Takala EP, Asklof T, et al. (2000) Active treatment of chronic neck pain: a prospective randomized intervention. Spine 25:1021–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thorsen H, Gam AN, Svensson BH, et al. (1992) Low level laser therapy for myofascial pain in the neck and shoulder girdle. A double-blind, cross-over study. Scand J Rheumatol 21:139–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Viljanen M, Malmivaara A, Uitti J, et al. (2003) Effectiveness of dynamic muscle training, relaxation training, or ordinary activity for chronic neck pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 327:475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Persson LC, Carlsson CA, Carlsson JY (1997) Long-lasting cervical radicular pain managed with surgery, physiotherapy, or a cervical collar. A prospective, randomized study. Spine 22:751–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boyle E, Côté P, Cassidy JD (2008) Examining vertebrobasilar artery stroke in two Canadian provinces. Spine 33(Suppl):S170–S175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Côté P, et al. (2008) Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care: results of a population-based case control and case-crossover study. Spine 33(Suppl):S176–S183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans RL, et al. (2004) Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Spine 4:335–56Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hoving JL, Gross AR, Gasner D, et al. (2001) Acritical appraisalof review articles on the effectiveness of conservative treatment for neck pain. Spine 26: 196–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fouyas IP, Statham PF, Sandercock PA (2002) Cochranere view on the role of surgery in cervical spondylotic radiculomyelopathy. Spine 27: 736–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Geurts JW, van Wijk RM, Stolker RJ, et al. (2001) Efficacy of radio frequency procedures for the treatment of spinal pain:a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Reg Anesth Pain Med 26:394–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    van Limbeek J, Jacobs WC, Anderson PG, et al. (2000) A systematic literature review to identify the best method for a single level anterior cervical inter-body fusion. Eur Spine J 9:129–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jacobs WC, Anderson PG, Limbeek J, et al. (2004) Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD004958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Conlin A, Bhogal S, Sequeira K, et al. (2005) Treatment of whiplash-associated disorders–part II: Medical and surgical interventions. Pain Res Manag 10:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, de Bie RA, et al. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;1.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Aker PD, Gross AR, Goldsmith CH, et al. (1996) Conservative management of mechanical neck pain: systematic overview and meta-analysis. BMJ 313:1291–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gross AR, Aker PD, Goldsmith CH, et al. Conservative management of mechanical neck disorders. A systematic overview and meta-analysis. Online J Curr Clin Trials 1996;Doc No. 200–201:34457.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, et al. (2001) Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for neck and shoulder pain among working age adults. Spine 26:174–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kay TM, Gross A, Goldsmith C, et al. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;3.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sarig-Bahat H (2003) Evidence for exercise therapy in mechanical neck disorders. Man Ther 8:10–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mior S. Exercise in the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2001;17: suppl 85.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kroeling P, Gross A, Houghton PE, et al. Electro therapy for neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;2.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kroeling P, Gross AR, Goldsmith CH, et al. (2005) A Cochrane reviewof electrotherapy for mechanical neck disorders. Spine 20:E641–E648Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    van der Heijden GJ, Beurskens AJ, Koes BW, et al. (1995) The efficacy of traction for back and neck pain: a systematic, blinded review of randomized clinical trial methods. Phys Ther 75:93–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Trinh K, Graham N, Gross A, et al. (2007) Acupuncture for neck disorders. Spine 32:236–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    White AR, Ernst E (1999) A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for neck pain. Rheumatology (Oxford) 38:143–7Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chow RT, Barnsley L (2005) Systematic review of the literature of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of neck pain. Lasers Surg Med 37:46–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vernon H, McDermaid CS, Hagino C (1999) Systematic review of randomized clinical trials of complementary/alternative therapies in the treatment of tension-type and cervicogenic headache. Complement Ther Med 7: 142–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fernandez-de-las-Penas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, et al. (2005) Spinal manipulative therapy in the management of cervicogenic headache. Headache 45:1260–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bronfort G, Evans R, Nelson B, et al. (2001) A randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 26:788–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bronfort G, Assendelft WJ, Evans R, et al. (2001) Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: a systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 24:457–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, et al. (1991) Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review. BMJ 303:1298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mior S. Manipulation and mobilization in the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2001;17:suppl 6.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines TA, et al. (2004) A Cochrane review of manipulation and mobilization for mechanical neck disorders. Spine 29:1541–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ezzo J, Haraldsson BG, Gross AR, et al. (2007) Massage for mechanical neck disorders: A systematic review. Spine 32:353–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gross AR, Kay T, Hondras M, et al. (2002) Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. Man Ther 7:131–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Haraldsson BG, Gross AR, Myers CD, et al. Massage for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hurwitz E, Aker PD, Adams AH, et al. (1996) Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. A systematic review of the literature. Spine 21: 1746–59Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, et al. Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;2.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peloso PM, Gross A, Haines TA, et al. (2006) Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders: a Cochrane systematic review. J Rheumatol 33:957–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Carlsson J, Norlander S, Rundcranz B, et al. Evidence-based physiotherapy in patients with neck pain. SBU Report No. 101. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU); 1999.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brison RJ, Hartling L, Dostaler S, et al. (2005) A randomized controlled trial of an educational intervention to prevent the chronic pain of whiplash associated disorders following rear-end motor vehicle collisions. Spine 30: 1799–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ferrari R, Rowe BH, Majumdar SR, et al. (2005) Simple educational intervention to improve the recovery from acute whiplash: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med 12:699–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kongsted A, Qerama E, Kasch H, et al. (2007) Neck collar, “act-as-usual” or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial. Spine 32:618–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bunketorp L, Lindh M, Carlsson J, et al. (2006) The effectiveness of a supervised physical training model tailored to the individual needs of patients with whiplash-associated disorders—a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 20:201–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mealy K, Brennan H, Fenelon GC (1986) Early mobilization of acute whiplash injuries. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 292:656–7Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Provinciali L, Baroni M, Illuminati L, et al. (1996) Multimodal treatment to prevent the late whiplash syndrome. Scand J Rehabil Med 28:105–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rosenfeld M, Gunnarsson R, Borenstein P (2000) Early intervention in whiplash-associated disorders: a comparison of two treatment protocols. Spine 25:1782–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rosenfeld M, Serferiadas A, Carlsson J, et al. (2003) Active intervention in patients with whiplash-associated disorders improves long-term prognosis. Spine 28:2491–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Scholten-Peeters GG, Neeleman-van der Steen CW, van der Windt DA, et al. (2006) Education by general practitioners or education and exercises by physio therapists for patients with whiplash-associated disorders? A randomized clinical trial. Spine 31:723–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stewart MJ, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, et al. (2007) Randomized controlled trial of exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Pain 128:59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barnsley L, Lord SM, Wallis BJ, et al. (1994) Lack of effect of intraarticular corticosteroids for chronic pain in the cervical zygapophyseal joints. N Engl J Med 330:1047–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pettersson K, Toolanen G (1998) High– dose methylprednisolone prevents extensive sick leave after whiplash injury, A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Spine 23:984–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McKinney LA, Dornan JO, Ryan M (1989) The role of physiotherapy in the management of acute neck sprains following road-traffic accidents. Arch Emerg Med 6:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Foley-Nolan D, Moore K, Codd M, et al. (1992) Low energy high frequency pulsed electromagnetic therapy for acute whiplash injuries. A double blind randomized controlled study. Scand J Rehabil Med 24:51–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Borchgrevink GE, Kaasa A, McDonagh D, et al. (1998) Acute treatment of whiplash neck sprain injuries.A randomized trial of treatment during the first 14 days after a car accident. Spine 23:25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Klaber Moffett JA, Jackson DA, Richmond S, et al. (2005) Randomised trial of a brief physiotherapy intervention compared with usual physiotherapy for neck pain patients: outcomes and patients’ preference. BMJ 330:75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dziedzic K, Hill J, Lewis M, et al. (2005) Effectiveness of manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy in addition to advice and exercise for neck disorders: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in physical therapy clinics. Arthritis Rheum 53:214–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, et al. (2002) Two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 27:2383–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gam AN, Warming S, Larsen LH, et al. (1998) Treatment of myofascial trigger-points with ultrasound combined with massage and exercise—a randomised controlled trial. Pain 77:73–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hoving JL, Koes BW, de Vet HC, et al. (2002) Manual therapy, physical therapy, or continued care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 136:713–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hoving JL, de Vet H, Koes B, et al. (2006) Manual therapy, physical therapy, or continued care by the general practitioner for patients with neck pain: long-term results from a pragmatic randomized clinical trial. Clin J Pain 22:370–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jordan A, Bendix T, Nielsen H, et al. (1998) Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Spine 23:311–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jull G, Trott P, Potter H, et al. (2002) A randomized controlled trial of exercise and manipulative therapy for cervicogenic headache. Spine 27:1835–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Revel M, Minguet M, Gregoy P, et al. (1994) Changes in cervicocephalic kinesthesia after a proprioceptive rehabilitation program in patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 75:895–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stanton WR, Jull GA (2003) Cervicogenic headache: locus of control and success of treatment. Headache 43:956–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ylinen J, Takala EP, Kautiainen H, et al. (2005) Effect of long-term neck muscle training on pressure pain threshold: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Pain 9:673–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chiu TT, Hui-Chan C W,Chein G. A randomized clinical trial of TENS and exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Clin Rehabil 2005;850–60.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chiu TT, Lam TH, Hedley AJ (2005) A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 30:E1–E17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ylinen J, Takala EP, Nykanen M, et al. (2003) Active neck muscle training in the treatment of chronic neck pain in women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289:2509–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ylinen JJ, Savolainen S, Airaksinen O, et al. (2003) Decreased strength and mobility in patients after anterior cervical diskectomy compared with healthy subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:1043–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Berry H, Liyanage SP, Durance RA, et al. (1981) A double-blind study of benorylate and chlormezanone in musculoskeletal disease. Rheumatol Rehabil 20:46–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brodin H (1984) Cervical pain and mobilization. Int J Rehabil Res 7:190–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hoivik HO, Moe N (1983) Effect of a combination of orphenadrine/paracetamol tablets (‘Norgesic’) on myalgia: a double-blind comparison with placeboin general practice. Curr Med Res Opin 8:531–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McReynolds T, Sheridan B (2005) Intramuscular Ketorolac versus osteopathic manipulative treatment in the management of acute neck pain in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc 105:57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Yamamoto M, Sugano T, Kashiwazaki S, et al. (1983) Double-blind comparison of piroxicam and indomethacin in the treatment of cervicobrachial syndrome and periarthritis scapulohumeralis (stiff shoulder). Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 6:266–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Cleland JA, Childs JD, McRae M, et al. (2005) Immediate effects of thoracic manipulation in patients with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. Man Ther 10:127–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    David J, Modi S, Aluko AA, et al. (1998) Chronic neck pain: a comparison of acupuncture treatment and physiotherapy. Br J Rheumatol 37:1118–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hurwitz E, Morgenstern H, Harber P, et al. (2002) A randomized trialof chiropractic manipulation and mobilization for patients with neck pain: clinical outcomes from the UCLA neck-pain study. Am J Public Health 10:1634–41Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hurwitz E, Morgenstern H, Vassilaki M, et al. (2004) Adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment and their effects on satisfaction and clinical outcomes among patients enrolled in the UCLA Neck Pain Study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 27:16–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hurwitz E, Morgenstern H, Vassilaki M, et al. (2005) Frequency and clinical predictors of adverse reactions to chiropractic care in the UCLA Neck Pain Study. Spine 30:1477–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Irnich D, Behrens N, Molzen H, et al. (2001) Randomised trial of acupuncture compared with conventional massage and “sham” laser acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain. BMJ 322:1574–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Koes BW, Bouter LM, Knipshild PG, et al. (1991) The effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy and continued treatment by the general practitioner for chronic nonspecific back and neck complaints: design of a randomized clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 14:498–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. (1992) Randomised clinical trial of manipulative therapy and physiotherapy for persistent back and neck complaints: results of one year follow up. BMJ 304:601–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. (1992) A blinded randomized clinical trial of manual therapy and physiotherapy for chronic back and neck complaints: physical outcome measures. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 15:16–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. (1992) The effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and treatment by the general practitioner for nonspecific back and neck complaints. A randomized clinical trial. Spine 17:28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. (1993) A randomized clinical trial of manual therapy and physiotherapy for persistent back and neck complaints: subgroup analysis and relationship between outcome measures. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 16:211–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Martinez-Segura R, Fernandez-de-las-Penas C, Ruiz-Saez M, et al. (2006) Immediate effects on neck pain and active range of motion after a single cervical high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation in subjects presenting with mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 29:511–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sterling M, Jull G, Wright A (2001) Cervical mobilisation: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity. Man Ther 6:72–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wood TG, Colloca CJ, Matthews R (2001) A pilot randomized clinical trial on the relative effect of instrumental (MFMA) versus manual (HVLA) manipulation in the treatment of cervical spine dysfunction. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 24:260–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Smania N, Corato E, Fiaschi A, et al. (2005) Repetitive magnetic stimulation: a novel therapeutic approach for myofascial pain syndrome. J Neurol 252:307–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    White PF, Craig WF, Vakharia AS, et al. (2000) Percutaneous neuromodulation therapy: does the location of electrical stimulation effect the acute analgesic response?. Anesth Analg 91:949–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zylbergold RS, Piper MC (1985) Cervicalspine disorders. A comparison of three types of traction. Spine 10:867–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Irnich D, Behrens N, Gleditsch JM, et al. (2002) Immediate effects of dry needling and acupuncture at distant points in chronic neck pain: results of a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover trial. Pain 99: 83–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Vas J, Perea-Milla E, Mendez C, et al. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of non-specific acute low back pain: a randomised controlled multicentre trial protocol. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Witt CM, Jena S, Brinkhaus B, et al. (2006) Acupuncture for patients with chronic neck pain. Pain 125:98–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hong CZ, Lin JC, Bender LF, et al. (1982) Magnetic necklace: its therapeutic effectiveness on neck and shoulder pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 63: 462–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ceccherelli F, Altafini L, Lo CG, et al. (1989) Diode laser in cervical myofascial pain: a double-blind study versus placebo. Clin J Pain 5:301–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chow R, Heller GZ, Barnsley L (2006) The effect of 300 mW, 830 nm laser on chronic neck pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pain 124:201–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gur A, Sarac AJ, Cevik R, et al. (2004) Efficacy of 904 nm gallium arsenide low level laser therapy in the management of chronic myofascial pain in the neck: a double-blind and randomize-controlled trial. Lasers Surg Med 35:229–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ozdemir F, Birtane M, Kokino S (2001) The clinical efficacy of low-power laser therapy on pain and function in cervical osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 20:181–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lavin RA, Pappagallo M, Kuhlemeier KV (1997) Cervical pain: a comparison of three pillows. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 78:193–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wheeler AH, Goolkasian P, Gretz SS (2001) Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of chronic neck pain. Pain 94:255–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gustavsson C, von Koch L (2006) Applied relaxation in the treatment of long-lasting neck pain: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Rehabil Med 38:100–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Altman DG, Schultz KF, Moher D, et al. (2001) The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. JAMA 134:663–94Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Carroll LJ, Hurwitz EL, Côté P, et al. (2008) Research priorities and methodological implications. Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine 33(Suppl): S213–S219Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Iannidis JPA, Evans SJW, Gotzsche PC, et al. (2004) Better reporting of harms in randomized trials: an extension of the CONSORT Statement. Ann Intern Med 141:781–8Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Buchbinder R, Jolley D, Wyatt M (2001) 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Effects of a media campaign on back pain beliefs and its potential influence on management of low back pain in general practice. Spine 26:2535–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Buchbinder R, Jolley D (2005) Effects of a media campaign on back beliefs is sustained3years after its cessation. Spine 30:1323–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Buchbinder R, Jolley D, Wyatt M (2001) Population based intervention to change back pain beliefs and disability: three part evaluation. BMJ 322: 1516–20PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric L. Hurwitz
    • 1
  • Eugene J. Carragee
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gabrielle van der Velde
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • Linda J. Carroll
    • 8
  • Margareta Nordin
    • 9
    • 10
  • Jaime Guzman
    • 11
    • 12
  • Paul M. Peloso
    • 13
  • Lena W. Holm
    • 14
  • Pierre Côté
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    • 15
  • Sheilah Hogg-Johnson
    • 5
    • 16
  • J. David Cassidy
    • 6
    • 7
    • 15
  • Scott Haldeman
    • 17
    • 18
  1. 1.Department of Public Health Sciences, John A. Burns School of MedicineUniversity of Hawaii at MânoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Orthopaedic Spine Center and Spinal Surgery ServiceStanford University Hospital and ClinicsStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Institute for Work and HealthTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Centre of Research Excellence in Improved Disability Outcomes (CREIDO)University Health Network Rehabilitation Solutions, Toronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada
  7. 7.Division of Health Care and Outcomes ResearchToronto Western Research InstituteTorontoCanada
  8. 8.Department of Public Health Sciences, and the Alberta Centre for Injury Control and Research, School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  9. 9.Department of Orthopaedics and Environmental Medicine and Program of Ergonomics and Biomechanics, School of Medicine and Graduate School of Arts and ScienceNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  10. 10.Occupational and Industrial Orthopaedic Center (OIOC)New York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  11. 11.Department of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  12. 12.Occupational Health and Safety Agency for Healthcare in British ColumbiaVanCouverCanada
  13. 13.Endocrinology, Analgesia and InflammationMerck & Co.RahwayUSA
  14. 14.Institute of Environmental MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  15. 15.Departments of Public Health Sciences and Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  16. 16.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  17. 17.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  18. 18.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations