European Spine Journal

, Volume 16, Supplement 2, pp 232–237 | Cite as

Current opinions and recommendations on multimodal intraoperative monitoring during spine surgeries

  • Martin SutterEmail author
  • Vedran Deletis
  • Jiri Dvorak
  • Andreas Eggspuehler
  • Dieter Grob
  • David MacDonald
  • Alfred Mueller
  • Francesco Sala
  • Tetsuya Tamaki
Original Article


With the rapid development of imaging techniques and better understanding of structural and functional pathology of the spine and spinal cord there has been a worldwide increase in the number of spine surgeries performed, particularly in specialized interdisciplinary spine centers. In addition to the congenital and acquired deformities of the spine and relatively rare spinal cord tumors, common degenerative spine disease within the aging general population contributes to a growing number of pathologies with myelopathies. This is important because antecedent myelopathy increases spinal cord risk during surgical treatment. The possibility of having functional neurophysiological assessment during spine and spinal cord surgery was introduced in 1970s by applying somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) as well as spinal evoked potentials [15, 21, 32, 33].

Meanwhile these modalities and continuous EMG recording have been enhanced by the addition of corticospinal motor pathway...


Spine surgery Intraoperative monitoring Evoked potential Guidelines 



The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Charles McCammon from the research department of Schulthess Clinic for organizing the consensus meeting and preparing the manuscript.

Conflict of interest statement None of the authors has any potential conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Sutter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vedran Deletis
    • 3
  • Jiri Dvorak
    • 1
  • Andreas Eggspuehler
    • 1
  • Dieter Grob
    • 2
  • David MacDonald
    • 4
  • Alfred Mueller
    • 1
  • Francesco Sala
    • 5
  • Tetsuya Tamaki
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Neurology/Spine UnitSchulthess ClinicZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic Surgery/Spine UnitSchulthess ClinicZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity Medical Center New YorkNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosciencesKing Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Neurological and Visual SciencesUniversity Hospital VeronaVeronaItaly
  6. 6.Wakayama Rosai HospitalWakayamaJapan

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