Current opinions and recommendations on multimodal intraoperative monitoring during spine surgeries
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With the rapid development of imaging techniques and better understanding of structural and functional pathology of the spine and spinal cord there has been a worldwide increase in the number of spine surgeries performed, particularly in specialized interdisciplinary spine centers. In addition to the congenital and acquired deformities of the spine and relatively rare spinal cord tumors, common degenerative spine disease within the aging general population contributes to a growing number of pathologies with myelopathies. This is important because antecedent myelopathy increases spinal cord risk during surgical treatment. The possibility of having functional neurophysiological assessment during spine and spinal cord surgery was introduced in 1970s by applying somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) as well as spinal evoked potentials [15, 21, 32, 33].
Meanwhile these modalities and continuous EMG recording have been enhanced by the addition of corticospinal motor pathway...
KeywordsSpine surgery Intraoperative monitoring Evoked potential Guidelines
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Charles McCammon from the research department of Schulthess Clinic for organizing the consensus meeting and preparing the manuscript.
Conflict of interest statement None of the authors has any potential conflict of interest.
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