Biochemical changes in selected tissues of normal albino rats following treatment with 1,3-bis [(furan-2-yl) methylene] urea

  • S. O. OsineyeEmail author
  • M. T. Bakare-Odunola
  • K. A. Alabi
  • A. K. Salau
  • A. A. Owolabi
  • F. T. Bale
  • B. A. Balogun
Original Article


This research investigated the effects of 1,3-bis(furan-2-yl)methylene) urea (BFMU), a synthesized imine compound with potential biological activities, on selected biochemical parameters of albino rats. The compound at varied concentrations (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally to albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, activities of enzymes such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were assayed. Also, activities of antioxidants including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione transferase (GST) and levels of parameters including protein, sodium, chlorine, and potassium were checked in the serum, liver, and kidney of the animals. The results revealed that the compound at the various concentrations tested caused significant (p ˂ 0.05) increase in the serum activities of ALT, ALP, and GGT and significantly reduced AST activity. These were accompanied by significant reductions in their activities in the liver, an indication of hepatotoxicity. The kidney also experienced significant increase in ALT and ALP and reduction in AST and GGT, when compared to the control, also indicating a potential nephrotoxic effect. Results further revealed significant (p ˂ 0.05) increase in the levels of serum protein, creatinine, uric acid, urea, and total and direct bilirubin, accompanied by significantly reduced levels of albumin, chlorine, and potassium, but an increased sodium level, further indicating possible damages to liver and kidney cells. Overall, this study revealed that BFMU possesses hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects and might need structural modifications.


Hepatotoxicity Alanine transaminase Alkaline phosphatase Gamma-glutamyl transferase Aspartate transaminase 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The use of animals in this study was done under approval of the ethical research committee of university of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant and Environmental Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical SciencesFountain UniversityOsogboNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal ChemistryUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  3. 3.Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemical SciencesFountain UniversityOsogboNigeria
  4. 4.Antioxidants, Toxicology and Phytomedicine Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical SciencesFountain UniversityOsogboNigeria
  5. 5.Antioxidants, Free Radicals, Functional Foods and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria

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