Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1143–1152 | Cite as

The effect of Descurainia sophia oil on methamphetamine-induced cell cytotoxicity and cell death in PC12

  • Moslem Sahraei
  • Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh
  • Masoumeh Khanahmadi
  • Rouholah Moradi
  • Nastaran Kazemi
  • Hossein ZhalehEmail author
  • Komail Amini
Original Article


Methamphetamine causes cytotoxicity and apoptosis in different cell lines. It seems that Descurainia sophia oil, as an East Asian folk herbal drug, can suppress the methamphetamine-induced cell death. In this study, protective effects of Descurainia sophia oil were followed up in methamphetamine-induced cell cytotoxicity in a neuron-like PC12 cell line. The viability, proliferation, and cytotoxicity of the cells were assessed by Trypan blue, MTT test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) test was performed to detect DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) level was detected by Griese method. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, interferon gamma (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by Rat Kit V-Plex, and finally, caspase-3 activity was determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that Descurainia sophia oil has cell death–suppressing effects on PC12 cells. It enhanced the cell viability and proliferation and also increased the cell cytotoxicity and cell death index in methamphetamine-treated PC12 cells. Also, it suppressed NO production, inflammatory cytokine production by flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. We concluded that Descurainia sophia oil suppresses the methamphetamine-induced cell death in PC12 cell due to reduction of NO production, inflammation, and inhibition of apoptosis cascade.


Descurainia sophia Oil Methamphetamine Cell cytotoxicity Cell death PC12 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All experiment procedures were approved by standards of Payame Noor University of Kermanshah (No. 01/Z/G 1395/12/01) on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, in accordance with the Research Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran (adopted on April 17, 2006), based on the Helsinki Protocol (Helsinki, Finland, 1975).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal PlantsInstitute of Higher EducationKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineRazi UniversityKermanshahIran
  3. 3.Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research CenterIlam University of Medical SciencesIlamIran
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryKermanshah Branch of ACECRKermanshahIran
  5. 5.Substance Abuse Prevention Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran

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