Investigations on the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of Ficus thonningii Blume extracts

  • Coker Morenike
  • Akanji Veronica
  • Benjamin O. EmikpeEmail author
  • Victor O. Oyebanji
  • Theophilus A. Jarikre
Original Article


We investigated antimicrobial properties of Ficus thonningii leaf extract on a cutaneous wound, using different concentrations of F. thonningii extract in an ointment base. The plant was obtained with identification number FRIN 110160. Cold maceration method of extraction was used and the extract was screened for the presence of secondary metabolites using qualitative methods. In vitro antibacterial property of the extract was carried out against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Healthy, male Wistar albino rats (100–150 kg) were used for the in vivo experiment, and randomized into 7.5% extract + ointment, 5.0% extract + ointment, gentamicin-alone, and ointment base–alone treatment groups. The ointments were applied topically on days 0, 7, and 14, while percentage wound closure rate and histopathology of the healed wound area were done following standard procedures. Alkaloids, phlobatannins, steroids, resins, reducing sugar, and saponins were secondary metabolites detected. The in vitro screening showed that ethyl acetate extract was effective against the bacteria. In conclusion, 7.5% ointment preparation of ethyl acetate F. thonningii leaf extract could be considered as a potent herbal drug for treating wound infections.


Ficus thonningii Antimicrobial Wound Ointment 



The authors sincerely appreciate the efforts of Mr. A Nwagbara for processing of the histological slides.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. An approval was obtained from the institutional Ethical Committee for animal use acts, before the commencement of the experiment.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

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