Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 825–832 | Cite as

Grafting with double-layered polypropylene mesh for gap healing of mid-metacarpal superficial digital flexor tendon in Equus asinus: clinical and pathological evaluations

  • Tarek M. SalehEmail author
  • Ebtehal A. Ahmed
  • Sary Abdel-Ghaffar
  • Samia Seleim
  • Mohammed Ali
Original Article


Tendon injury is one of the most common causes of wastage in equine. The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) gets affected the most, especially in the mid-metacarpal region. Several studies have focused on the grafting of severed SDFT, but no ideal grafting material has been approved for clinical application. The present study aimed to evaluate the grafting of the mid-metacarpal SDFT in donkeys with a double-layered polypropylene mesh clinically, ultrasonically, macro/microscopically. Clinically healthy adult donkeys (n = 24) were divided randomly and equally into two groups: control (C) and study (S) groups. Tenotomy was performed on all animals by excising a full-thickness segment from the mid-metacarpal SDFT. In the C group, a suture tenorrhaphy was performed. While in the S group, SDFT was grafted with the double-layered polypropylene mesh. The S group showed faster clinical improvements, and earlier appearance of normal newly formed tendinous tissue ultrasonically compared with the C group. Macroscopically, the grafted tendons showed a rapid restoration of normal color and consistency. Moreover, they had minimal peri-tendinous adhesions compared with the non-grafted tendons. Microscopically, the grafted tendons showed earlier vascularization and more mature collagen fibers compared with the non-grafted tendons. In the present study, we have succeeded to graft the gap of the mid-metacarpal SDFT of a donkey using the double-layered polypropylene mesh. This method is an economical way to accelerate the healing process of the SDFT and enhance the clinical recovery in donkeys.


Superficial digital flexor tendon Tendon grafting Polypropylene mesh Donkey 



The authors thank the staff and workers of the Department of Veterinary Surgery, Assiut University.

Authors’ contributions

T.M.A. Saleh performed all the operations in the study. E.A. Ahmed contributed to the study execution (macro/microscopic examinations). Both wrote the manuscript. S.K. Abdel-Ghaffar, S.M. Seleim, and M.A. Ali contributed to the study design and data analysis. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed, and the study has been approved by the National Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Surgical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Stem Cell InstituteKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.College of Veterinary MedicineAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt

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