Phyllanthus emblica fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants which is widely used for different gastric ailments in Ayurveda and traditional herbal medicine. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and protective role of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit (AEPEF) on intestinal mucosa against castor oil-induced diarrhea. Rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 6). After acclimatization of 7 days, group I (control) and group II (loperamide) were given distilled water @ 20 ml/kg body weight (BW) orally whereas rats of group III, group IV, and group V received AEPEF @ 200 mg, 400 mg, and 600 mg/kg BW respectively, daily for 14 days. On the 15th day, diarrhea was induced with 1 ml castor oil to each rat orally. Onset time of diarrhea and percentage inhibition of defecation revealed significantly (p < 0.05) higher onset time and higher percentage inhibition of defecation respectively in group II, group V, and group IV as compared to group I. In groups IV and V, lipid peroxidation was significantly low whereas superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase found to be significantly increased as compared to groups I and II. Duodenal histopathology of group IV and group V revealed no change in mucosal integrity whereas degenerative changes like stunting, infiltration of polymorphs, and villous atrophy were observed in group I and group II. The study concludes that prior treatment with AEPEF delays the induction of diarrhea and protects intestinal mucosa from the deleterious effect of castor oil-induced oxidative damage.
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The authors acknowledge the Director, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, for providing necessary facilities and funding for this research work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Prior ethical clearance for experimentation was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC), ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly. All the experimentation was conducted as per the guidelines laid down by the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA).
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