The fatty liver disease is one of the most usual metabolic diseases among people around the world. Appropriate strategies for treating this disease are prioritized by each country. The purpose of the new research was to survey the therapeutical property of aqueous extract of Tragopogon graminifolius on the high-fat diet-induced fatty liver disease in Wistar male rats. In this study, 60 rats were used. A total of ten rats were chosen as the negative control, and the rest of them were treated with a high-fat diet for 4 months. Then, the animals were randomly divided into six subgroups, including negative healthy control, untreated negative control, and four groups receiving the aqueous extract of T. graminifolius at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg concentrations. After 2 months, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and liver samples of them were collected for biochemical and histopathological parameter analysis. All doses of T. graminifolius could significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decrease the raised levels of ALP, AST, ALT, GGT, cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, total and conjugated bilirubin, and glucose and increased HDL, total protein, albumin, SOD, and CAT as compared to the untreated group. Also, aqueous extract of T. graminifolius decreased the degree of hepatic steatosis as compared to the untreated group. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of T. graminifolius aqueous extract.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
Abei H (1974) Catalase. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, New York, pp 673–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bosisio E, Benelli C, Pirola O (1992) Effect of the flavanolignans of Silybum marianum L. on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes. Pharmacol Res 25(2):147–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Wallis C, Simpson HC (2008) Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 15(9):668–675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Farzaei MH, Rahimi R, Attar F, Siavoshi F, Saniee P, Hajimahmoodi M, Mirnezami T, Khanavi M (2014b) Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Tragopogon graminifolius, a medicinal herb from Iran. Nat Prod Commun 9(1):121–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
Farzaei MH, Ghasemi-Niri SF, Abdolghafari AH, Baeeri M, Khanavi M, Navaei-Nigjeh M, Abdollahi M, Rahimi R (2015) Biochemical and histopathological evidence on the beneficial effects of Tragopogon graminifolius in TNBS-induced colitis. Pharm Biol 53(3):429–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Farzaei MH, Zangeneh MM, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh A (2018) Stereological assessment of nephroprotective effects of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Int J Morphol 36(2):750–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flora K, Hahn M, Rosen H, Benner K (1998) Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 93(2):139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghashghaii A, Hashemnia M, Nikousefat Z, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A (2017) Wound healing potential of methanolic extract of Scrophularia striata in rats. Pharm Sci 23(4):256–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haga Y, Kanda T, Sasaki R, Nakamura M, Nakamoto S, Yokosuka O (2015) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis. World J Gastroenterol 21(46):12989–12995CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Hagh-Nazari L, Goodarzi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Tahvilian R, Moradi R (2017) Stereological study of kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice treated with ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana (bitter fraction). Comp Clin Pathol 26(2):455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamelian M, Zangeneh MM, Amisama A, Varmira K, Veisi H (2018) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Thymus kotschyanus extract and evaluation of their antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Appl Organomet Chem. https://doi.org/10.1002/aoc.4458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemmati M, Zohoori E, Mehrpour O, Karamian M, Asghari S, Zarban A, Nasouti R (2015) Anti-atherogenic potential of jujube, saffron and barberry: anti-diabetic and antioxidant actions. EXCLI J 14:908–915PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Jacobs BP, Dennehy C, Ramirez G, Sapp J, Lawrence VA (2002) Milk thistle for the treatment of liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 113(6):506–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lee TY, Chang HH, Lo WC, Lin HC (2010) Alleviation of hepatic oxidative stress by Chinese herbal medicine Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang in obese mice with steatosis. Int J Mol Med 25(6):837–844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Martin JP, Dailey M, Sugarman E (1987) Negative and positive assays of superoxide dismutase based on hematoxylin autoxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 255(2):329–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mohammadifar M, Behnam M, Talaei SA, Khamechian T, Mehran M, Taghizadeh M (2018) Evaluation effect of Silybum Marianum, Cynara scolymus L and Ziziphus jujube Mill combination extract on nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 19(6):410–418Google Scholar
Nazni P, Vijayakumar TP, Alagianambi P, Amirthaveni M (2006) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Cynara scolymus among selected type 2 diabetic individuals. Pak J Nutr 5(1):147–151Google Scholar
Sabzghabaee AM, Khayam I, Kelishadi R, Ghannadi A, Soltani R, Badri S, Shirani S (2013) Effect of Zizyphus jujuba fruits on dyslipidemia in obese adolescents: a triple-masked randomized controlled clinical trial. Med Arch 67(3):156–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Sadeghi A, Bahramsoltani R, Rahimi R, Farzaei MH, Farzaei F, Siavosh-Haghighi ZM, Abdollahi M (2018) Biochemical and histopathological evidence on beneficial effects of standardized extract from Tragopogon graminifolius as a dietary supplement in fatty liver: role of oxidative stress. J Diet Suppl 15(2):197–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Sayyedrostami T, Pournaghi P, Ebrahimi Vosta-Kalaeea S, Zangeneh MM (2018) Evaluation of the wound healing activity of Chenopodium botrys leaves essential oil in rats (a short-term study). J Essent Oil Bear Plants 21(1):164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaker E, Mahmoud H, Mnaa S (2010) Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum marianum extracts prevent liver damage. Food Chem Toxicol 48(3):803–806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Tamayo C, Diamond S (2007) Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.). Integr Cancer Ther 6(2):146–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Zeeni N, Daher CF, Saab L, Mroueh M (2014) Tragopogon porrifolius improves serum lipid profile and increases short-term satiety in rats. Appetite 72:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Zhaleh M, Sohrabi N, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A, Moradi R, Zhaleh H (2018) Chemical composition and antibacterial effects of essential oil of Rhus coriaria fruits in the west of Iran (Kermanshah). J Essent Oil Bear Plants 21(2):493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang R, Yu Y, Hu S, Zhang J, Yang H, Han B, Cheng Y, Luo X (2016) Sesamin ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in rats on a high-fat diet via LXR5 and PPAR5. Nutr Res 36(9):1022–1030CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar