Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 281–286 | Cite as

Pycnogenol® supplementation improved the erythrocyte stability of packed donkeys during the late hot-dry season in Zaria, Nigeria

  • Folashade Helen OlaifaEmail author
  • Ayo Joseph Olusegun
  • Aluwong Tangang
  • Rekwot Peter Ibrahim
  • Friday Ocheja Zakari
Original Article


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pycnogenol® (PYC) on erythrocyte stability of donkeys subjected to packing during the late hot-dry season. Ten donkeys, divided into two groups, served as experimental subjects. P-PYC group (n = 5) was subjected to packing only, while P+PYC group (n = 5) was administered with PYC (10 mg/kg) and subjected to packing. Erythrocytes obtained from each animal in the experimental groups were added into saline solution of different concentrations (0.9, 0.6, 0.4. 0.2, and 0.0 g/100 ml). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility index (EOFI) was evaluated spectrophotometrically. The concentration of isoprostane was also determined. The mean EOFI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in P-PYC group 3 and 7 days after packing at 0.6 g/100 ml, with values of 32.4 ± 3.2 and 53.4 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the MCF recorded in both groups, before, after, 3, and 7 days after packing. Percentage erythrocyte stability was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in P+PYC group, especially during, and 7 days after packing with values of 24.3 ± 9.2 and − 23.3 ± 22.8%, respectively when compared with the values of 8.6 ± 3.3 and − 79.7 ± 9.3% obtained in P-PYC group, respectively. Mean isoprostane concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in P-PYC group when compared with the value in P+PYC group, 7 days after packing. In conclusion, environmental and packing stresses decreased stability of the erythrocytes in donkeys; however, PYC may have played an ameliorative role.


Erythrocyte stability Season Isoprostane Donkey 



This study was partially funded by the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The animal experiments within this study were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and were performed in accordance with the animal welfare guidelines thereof.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary PhysiologyAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria
  2. 2.National Animal Production and Research InstituteAhmadu Bello UniversityShikaNigeria

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