Bovine papilloma: aetiology, pathology, immunology, disease status, diagnosis, control, prevention and treatment: a review

  • Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna UgochukwuEmail author
  • Chioma Inyang Aneke
  • Idoko Sunday Idoko
  • Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani
  • Adole Jolly Amoche
  • Wayuta Philip Mshiela
  • Richard Emmanuel Ede
  • Najume Dogowar Giginya Ibrahim
  • Celestine Ibe O. Njoku
  • Anthony Kojo Beku Sackey
Review Article


Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces diseases of economic and veterinary importance leading to significant economic losses to livestock owners such as leather depreciation and mortality when it progresses to neoplasms. BPV affects the spinosum and granulosum layers of the skin causing warts. There are many reportage of BPV infection in domestic animals such as cattle, birds and wild animals such as tapir, giraffe, antelope and zebras. It also causes equine sarcoids in horses and donkeys. Gross lesions seen are mainly benign papillomas which most times regress but occasionally persist and progress to malignancy of the urinary bladder and upper alimentary tract leading to Enzootic haematuria. Equine sarcoids could be of the occult, nodular or verrucous types. Due to the ability to BPV to cause cancers, haematuria and skin pathologies, diagnosis of this infection has attracted huge interests. Diagnostic techniques include clinical examination, histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Southern blot, dot blot, reverse blot, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. All the aforementioned have been very helpful in the diagnosis of BPV. In conclusion, this review focused on the aetiology, viral structure pathogenicity, transmission, macroscopic and microscopic pathology, pathogenesis, immunology, gene products, prevention, treatment and control of this virus in affected animal species.


Bovine papillomavirus Mastitis Neoplasia Papillomatosis Sarcoids 



A special thanks goes to Prof E.I. Ugochukwu and Late (Dr) Majiyagbe for their helpful contributions and suggestions.

Author’s contributions

Ibrahim NDG, Njoku COI and Sackey AKB conceived the idea; Ugochukwu ICI, Aneke CI, Sani NA and Ede ER wrote the manuscript whilst Idoko SI, Adole JA and Mshielia WP made significant intellectual contributions. All Authors read and approved the manuscript for submission.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This review article does not contain any studies with animals or human participants performed by the author.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Chioma Inyang Aneke
    • 1
  • Idoko Sunday Idoko
    • 2
  • Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani
    • 2
  • Adole Jolly Amoche
    • 3
  • Wayuta Philip Mshiela
    • 4
  • Richard Emmanuel Ede
    • 4
  • Najume Dogowar Giginya Ibrahim
    • 5
  • Celestine Ibe O. Njoku
    • 5
  • Anthony Kojo Beku Sackey
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Pathology and MicrobiologyUniversity of Nigeria NsukkaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary PathologyUniversity of AbujaAbujaNigeria
  3. 3.Viral Research DivisionNational Veterinary Research InstituteVomNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary MedicineAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria
  5. 5.Department of Veterinary PathologyAhmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria

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