Protection of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by Trachyspermum ammi essential oil in mice
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Ethnomedicinal plants are considered as new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to chemical drugs. Trachyspermum ammi (Ta) has been used in medicine as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitical, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Ta essential oil against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Thirty-five mice were divided into five groups (n = 7). Group I served as negative control, received 1 mL/kg olive oil intraperitoneally and 0.5 mL distilled water through gavage. Group II served as positive control, received 1 mg/kg CCl4 mixed with olive oil in the ratio of 5:5, intraperitoneally, and 0.5 mL distilled water orally. Groups III, IV, and V received CCl4mixed with olive oil in the ratio of 5:5 intraperitoneally and 200, 800, and 1600 μg/kg of Ta essential oil through gavage for 45 consecutive days. The results showed that thymol (44.2%), p-cymene (25.7%), and γ-terpinene (25.1%) are the main components of Ta essential oil. Different doses of Ta essential oil could significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the raised levels of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase toward control levels. The volume and weight of the liver, and volume of hepatocytes and sinusoids which were increased significantly (p < 0.05) in positive control group compared to the negative control group, were significantly decreased with high dose of Ta essential oil (1600 μg/kg) (p < 0.05). The volume of central veins, portal veins, hepatic arteries, and bile ducts did not have significant changes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ta essential oil can protect hepatic tissue and regulate liver enzymes in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant compounds.
KeywordsTrachyspermum ammi Hepatotoxicity CCl4 Essential oil
The authors would like to thank Mr. Moradi and Dr. Massomi for their technical assistances.
MHF prepared the plant essential oil. MMZ performed biochemical assessments and contributed in the statistical analysis. NG performed the stereological plan and wrote the manuscript. AZ was involved in animal handling and treatment.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the ethics committee of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS.REC.1395.497).
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