Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 975–988 | Cite as

Seasonal modulation of reproductive hormones and related biomarkers in coldwater cyprinid Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)

  • Neeraj Kumar SharmaEmail author
  • M. S. AkhtarEmail author
  • Ravindra Singh
  • N. N. Pandey
Original Article


Barilius bendelisis is a valuable ornamental and food fish from India in which the endocrine control of its reproduction activity has not been widely reported. The present study was aimed to elucidate changes in serum endocrine hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), progesterone (P4), 17α, 20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (17α, 20β-P), cortisol (C), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4); aromatase activity (ARO), vitellogenin (VTG), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) during different seasons of the year 2014. All studied parameters showed marked seasonal variations. The highest E2 level in males and females were recorded in winter (January) and rainy (September) seasons respectively. The T level exhibited dual peaks in both sexes, and the highest values were observed during the winter (January) and rainy (September) seasons. The serum levels of P4 and 17α, 20β-P during spring (March) and rainy (September) seasons were significantly higher and found associated with final sperm and oocyte maturation. The serum levels of ARO and VTG also showed bimodal pattern during the spring (March) and rainy (September) season and were well correlated with T and E2. Serum C level was detectable throughout the year in both sexes which were related to glucose metabolism and spawning events. Fluctuations in T3 and T4 levels were associated with somatic growth and reproduction events during different seasons in B. bendelisis. Serum TAC level was highest during summer (May and July) and autumn (November) seasons suggesting better antioxidant potential during these seasons. The study confirms that B. bendelisis is a multiple spawner with two spawning seasons.


Barilius bendelisis Season Sex steroid hormones Aromatase Vitellogenin Multiple spawner 



The authors are grateful to the Director, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal-263136, Nainital, Uttarakhand and Head, Department of Zoology, HNB Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand for providing necessary facilities and support to successfully carry out this study. This paper is a part of thesis research of the first author registered for PhD at HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India. The first author would also like to acknowledge University Grant Commission, India, for providing university fellowship during PhD tenure.

Electronic supplementary material

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

During all stages of our research, all applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Not applicable in this type of study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fish Nutrition and Physiology Laboratory, ICAR-Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries ResearchBhimtalIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyHemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Tehri Campus BadshahithaulTehriIndia

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