Seasonal modulation of reproductive hormones and related biomarkers in coldwater cyprinid Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807)
- 101 Downloads
Barilius bendelisis is a valuable ornamental and food fish from India in which the endocrine control of its reproduction activity has not been widely reported. The present study was aimed to elucidate changes in serum endocrine hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), progesterone (P4), 17α, 20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (17α, 20β-P), cortisol (C), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4); aromatase activity (ARO), vitellogenin (VTG), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) during different seasons of the year 2014. All studied parameters showed marked seasonal variations. The highest E2 level in males and females were recorded in winter (January) and rainy (September) seasons respectively. The T level exhibited dual peaks in both sexes, and the highest values were observed during the winter (January) and rainy (September) seasons. The serum levels of P4 and 17α, 20β-P during spring (March) and rainy (September) seasons were significantly higher and found associated with final sperm and oocyte maturation. The serum levels of ARO and VTG also showed bimodal pattern during the spring (March) and rainy (September) season and were well correlated with T and E2. Serum C level was detectable throughout the year in both sexes which were related to glucose metabolism and spawning events. Fluctuations in T3 and T4 levels were associated with somatic growth and reproduction events during different seasons in B. bendelisis. Serum TAC level was highest during summer (May and July) and autumn (November) seasons suggesting better antioxidant potential during these seasons. The study confirms that B. bendelisis is a multiple spawner with two spawning seasons.
KeywordsBarilius bendelisis Season Sex steroid hormones Aromatase Vitellogenin Multiple spawner
The authors are grateful to the Director, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal-263136, Nainital, Uttarakhand and Head, Department of Zoology, HNB Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand for providing necessary facilities and support to successfully carry out this study. This paper is a part of thesis research of the first author registered for PhD at HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India. The first author would also like to acknowledge University Grant Commission, India, for providing university fellowship during PhD tenure.
Electronic supplementary material
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
During all stages of our research, all applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Not applicable in this type of study.
- Barcellos LJ, Wassermann GF, Scott AP, Woehl VM, Quevedo RM, Ittzés I, Krieger MH, Lulhier F (2001) Steroid profiles in cultured female jundia, the siluridae Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, Pisces Teleostei), during the first reproductive cycle. Gen Comp Endocrinol 121(3):325–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Comeau LA, Campana SE (2006) Correlations between thyroidal and reproductive endocrine status in wild Atlantic cod. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2682Google Scholar
- Dobriyal AK, Singh HR (1987) The reproductive biology of a hill stream minor carp, Barilius bendelisis from Garhwal Himalaya, India. Vest Cs Spolec Zool 51:1–10Google Scholar
- Folmar LC, Denslow ND, Kroll K, Orlando EF, Enblom J, Marcino J, Metcalfe C, Guillette Jr LJ (2001) Altered serum sex steroids and vitellogenin induction in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) collected near a metropolitan sewage treatment plant. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 40(3):392–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heidari B, Roozati SA, Yavari L (2010) Changes in plasma levels of steroid hormones during oocyte development of Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky, 1901). Anim Reprod 7(4):373–381Google Scholar
- Jarvis ET, Loke-Smith KA, Evans K, Kloppe RE, Young KA, Valle CF (2014) Reproductive potential and spawning periodicity in barred sand bass (Paralabrax nebulifer) from the San Pedro Shelf, southern California. Calif Fish Game 100(2):289–309Google Scholar
- Liu J, Mai K, Xu W, Zhang Y, Zhou H, Ai Q (2015) Effects of dietary glutamine on survival, growth performance, activities of digestive enzyme, antioxidant status and hypoxia stress resistance of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther) post larvae. Aquaculture 446:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Luty-Frackiewicz A, Markiewicz-Gorka I, Januszewska L (2006) Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on total antioxidant status in patients with psoriasis. Adv Clin Exp Med 15(3):463–469Google Scholar
- Nash JP, Davail-Cuisset B, Bhattacharyya S, Suter HC, Le Menn F, Kime DE (2000) An enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for testosterone, estradiol, and 17, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregenen-3-one using acetylcholinesterase as tracer: application to measurement of diel patterns in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol Biochem 22(4):355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nautiyal P, Negi RS (2004) Population structure, dietary resources utilization and reproductive strategies of sympatric Barilius bendelisis and Barilius vagra in lesser Himalayan mountain streams. 21th Century fish research, AJH. Publishing Corporation, Delhi 43–68Google Scholar
- Oo W (2002) Inland fisheries of the Union of Myanmar. In T Petr and DB Swar (eds.) Cold Water 441 Fisheries in the Trans-Himalayan Countries. FAO Fish Technical Paper, 431Google Scholar
- Raine JC (2011) Thyroid hormones and reproduction in fishes. In: Norris DO, Lopez KH (eds) Hormones and reproduction in vertebrates, volume 1-fishes. Elsevier academic press, London 83–95 ppGoogle Scholar
- Ray SN, Sinha RC (2014) Serum cortisol and glucose: reliable bioindicators of stress in the fish Labeo rohita. Int J Innov Sci Eng Technol 1:6–17Google Scholar
- Talwar PK, Jhingran AG (1991) Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries (Vols. 1 and 2). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1158–1215 ppGoogle Scholar
- Tilak R, Jaffer Z, Husain A (1984) Systematic status of Barilius bendelisis Hamilton (Cyprinidae: Pisces). Rec Zool Soc India 81(3–4):279–290Google Scholar
- Venkataramanan R, Murali N, Sreekumar C, Gowrimanokari K (2016) Breeding tubercles in scales of male Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807) identified as sexual dimorphic character. Curr Sci 110(6):985Google Scholar
- Young G, Kusakabe M, Nakamura I, Lokman PM, Goetz FW (2005) Gonadal steroidogenesis in teleost fish. In: N Sherwood and P Melamed (Eds) Molecular aspects of fish and marine biology. In: C, Hew (Ed.) Hormones and their Receptors in Fish Reproduction, Volume 2. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., Singapore, 155–223 pp.Google Scholar