Subclinical nodular goiter associated with Hurthle cell, papillary, and adenomatoid hyperplasic nodules in the dromedary camel in the Sultanate of Oman
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Goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are a worldwide problem. IDD prevalence rate of 52.7% has been reported among school children aged 9–12 years in Dhofar region, (WHO 2006) which resides adjacent to the Arabian Sea in the Sultanate of Oman. In a preliminary survey, 39.5 and 44.7% of the dromedary camels in the region exhibited low total T3 and total T4, respectively. An abattoir survey was carried out and the dromedary camels examined during the anti-mortem were clinically normal. Post-mortem examination of both thyroid lobes of slaughtered camel, revealed normal weight but 69.5% of these showed nodules of various sizes, numbers, shapes, colors and consistency in the capsular region and or deeply embedded in thyroid tissue. A wide range of histopathological changes were seen and categorized according to the dominant histological pattern into Hurthle cell nodules, papillary hyperplastic nodules, adenomatoid hyperplastic nodules and nodular colloid goiter only. The Hurthle cell nodules were either solid encapsulated cords or follicular variants of well-encapsulated macrofollicles and microfollicles of different sizes and shapes, and the Hurthle cells were seen lining the colloid follicles or forming the solid cords. In the papillary hyperplastic nodules, majority of cases lack capsule, the fronds were multiple and variable, and usually do not compress the surrounding parenchyma. Adenomatoid hyperplastic nodules formed of encapsulated follicular nodules with various sizes and shapes and containing little or no colloid. The nodular colloid goiter along with the papillary hyperplastic nodules had psammoma-like bodies without lamellation. No evidence was found of capsular or vascular invasion apart from one case which showed limited vascular and capsular invasion. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry using specific thyroid tumor markers did not reveal malignancy in all suspected cases. Total and free serum T3 and T4 and serum selenium were comparatively low, and CK enzyme was high in affected camels. The causes of the subclinical nodular goiter, probably multifactorial, were discussed.
KeywordsDromedary camels Subclinical nodular goiter Hurthle cells Papillary hyperplasia Adenomatoid nodules Thyroid tumor markers Thyroid hormones Selenium Enzymes
We would like to express our appreciation and gratitude for professor A.M. El Hassan, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum for the second opinion; Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, for the approval to use Al Qattara Veterinary Lab facilities; the staff in Salalah Veterinary Hospital for the help during specimen collection; the staff in the Pathology Department College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman for the help in the preparation and staining of the slides; the Department of Defense Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC, for the second opinion in some tumor markers; and the UAE University lab staff for some specimens analysis.
This study was funded by College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Gaboos University, Sultanate of Oman (grant number IG/AGR/ANVS/10/01).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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