Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 679–688 | Cite as

Haematopoietic induction and hepatic protective roles of Hepacare® in CCl4-induced hepatic damaged rats

  • Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo
  • Omolara Faith Yakubu
  • Oluwatobi Samuel Adegbite
  • Olajuwon Okubena
Original Article


Herbal formulations are plant parts used as raw materials for self-administered pharmaceutical remedies, and many of them are being sold without any scientific validation for their potency and efficacy. This research work was aimed at evaluating the haematopoietic, biochemical, and histological effects of Hepacare®, a popularly sold herbal formulation in Nigeria against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated liver damage in rats. Haematological analysis showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in haemoglobin, red blood cell, packed cell volume, and platelet counts in CCl4-treated group when compared with the untreated group. These parameters were however reversed across the groups treated with the herbal formulation. Levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced after treatment of rats with the formulation which were previously elevated (p < 0.05) in the CCl4-treated group when compared with the untreated group. The CCl4-treated group exhibited significantly different activities in liver SOD and GSH enzymes. The level of MDA was lowered in the liver tissue samples of treated rats when compared with the CCl4-exposed untreated rats. The groups treated with the formulation showed signs of protection against this toxicant as evidenced by the absence of necrosis. Hepacare® showed reversal effects on the previously increased haematological parameters and damaged liver tissues with a potential to ameliorate oxidative stress in hepatic dysfunction.


Hepacare® Carbon tetrachloride Haematologic Liver injury Hepatic marker enzymes Antioxidant markers Histological examination 



This research was supported by Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria, through a seed grant (CUCERD-2014) given to AHA. The support from the technical staff of the Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, is greatly appreciated.

Compliance with ethical standards

The research was approved by the Department of Biological Sciences Research Ethics Committee, Covenant University. All animals were also treated in line with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines for the use and care of animals in the laboratory (National Institute of Health (NIH) 2011).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adebayo AH, Abolaji AO, Kela R, Ayepola OO, Olorunfemi TB, Taiwo OS (2011) Antioxidant activities of the leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Pak J Pharm Sci 24:545–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adebayo AH, Adegbite OS, Olugbuyiro JO, Famodu OO, Odenigbo KB (2014) Toxicological evaluation of extract of Olax subsorpioidea on albino wistar rats. Afr J pharmacol and pharm 8:570–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adedapo AA, Adegbayibi AY, Emikpe BO (2005) Some clinicopathological changes associated with the aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus in rats. Phytother Res 19:971–976CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Agbo NG, Chatigre KO, Simard RE (1992) Canarium scweinfurthii Engl chemical composition of the fruit pulp. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69:4317–4318Google Scholar
  5. Agunu A, Abdurahman EM, Shok M, Sadiq AY (2005) Analgesic activity of roots and leaves of C. portoricensis. Fitoterapia 76:442–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aguwa CN, Lawal AM (1988) Pharmacological studies on the active principle of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 22:63–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aliyu R, Adebayo A, Gatsing D, Garba I (2007) The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Commiphora africana (Burseraceae) on rat liver and kidney functions. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2:373–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amujoyegbe OO, Agbedahunsi JM, Akanmu MA (2014) Antisickling properties of two Calliandra species: C. portoricensis and C. haematocephala (Fabaceae). Eur J of Med Plants 4:206–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baranisrinivasan P, Elumalai EK, Sivakumar C, Viviyan Therasa S, David E (2009) Hepatoprotective effect of Enicostemma littorale blume and Eclipta alba during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. Int J Pharmacol 5:268–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bussieres JF, Habra M (1995) Application of International Consensus Meeting Criteria for classifying drug-induced liver disorders. Annals Pharmacother 29:875–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chizzola R, Michitsch H, Franz C (2003) Monitoring of metallic micronutrients and heavy metals in herbs, spices and medicinal plants from Australia. Eur Food Res and Technol 216:407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixon M, Paterson CR (1978) Posture and the composition of plasma. Clin Chem 24:824–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Doumas BT, Perry BW, Sasse EA, Straumfjord JV (1973) Standardization in bilirubin assays: evaluation of selected methods and stability of bilirubin solutions. Clin Chem 19:984–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HC (1971) Albumin standards and management of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Chin Chim Acta 31:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farombi EO, Owoeye O (2011) Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:2533–2555CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaweł S, Wardas M, Niedworok E, Wardas P (2004) Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker. Wiad Lek 57:453–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Iwalewa EO, Adewunmi CO, Omisore NO, Adebanji OA, Azike CK, Adigun AO et al (2005) Pro- and anti-oxidant effects and cytoprotective potentials of nine edible vegetables in south west Nigeria. J Med Foods 8:539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaushansky K (2006) Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors. N Engl J Med 354:2034–2045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Koudou J, Abena AA, Ngaissona P, Bessière JM (2005) Chemical composition and pharmacological activity of essential oil of Canarium schweinfurthii. Fitoterapia 76:700–703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Krieg M, Gunsser KJ, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Becker H (1986) Comparative quantitative clinico-chemical analysis of the characteristics of 24-hour urine and morning urine. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 24:863–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Larsen K (1971) Creatinine assay by a reaction-kinetic principle. Clin Chim Acta 41:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Misra HP, Fridovich I (1972) The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 247:3170–3175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B (1979) Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 582:67–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. National Institute of Health (NIH) (2011) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. US. Department of Health Education and Welfare. USA: NIH PublicationGoogle Scholar
  25. Niehaus WG, Samuelson B (1968) Formation of malondialdehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem 6:126–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Nyblom H, Berggren U, Balldin J, Olsson R (2004) High AST/ALT ratio may indicate advanced alcoholic liver disease rather than heavy drinking. Alcohol 39:336–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO (2001) Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Glo J Pure and Appl Sci 8:203–208Google Scholar
  28. Ojiako OA, Nwajo HU (2005) Is Vernonia amygdalina hepatotoxic or hepatoprotective? Response from biochemical and toxicity studies in rats. Afr J Biotechnol 5:1648–1651Google Scholar
  29. Okon JE, Udosen IR, Mbong EO (2013) Phytochemical screening and effect of ethanolic root extract of Uvaria chamae on haematological parameters on albino rats in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. M Res J Environ Sci Toxicol 1:16–20Google Scholar
  30. Orishadipe AT, Okogun JI, Mishelia E (2010) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the hexane extract of Calliandra portoricensis and its antimicrobial activity. Afr J Pure and Applied Chem 4:131–134Google Scholar
  31. Oyebode OT, Odejide TT, Kukoyi AJ, Adebisi LA, Olorunsogo OO (2012) Effects of different fractions of Calliandra portoricensis root bark on isolated rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore. Afr J Med Med Sci 41:399–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) Colorimetric GOT and GPT determination. Am J Clin Pathol 28:56–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Runzhi Z, Guofang Z, Yinqin C, Qingyu Z, Bin L, Jie L et al (2013) Oroxylin A accelerates liver regeneration in CCI4-induced acute liver injury mice. PLoS One 8:e71612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sanjay J, Vinod KD, Neelesh M, Vijay A (2009) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus roxb. Tubers. Acta poloniae Pharmaceutical and Drug research 66:423–428Google Scholar
  35. Schuppan D, Jia JD, Brinkhaus B, Hahn EG (1999) Herbal products for liver diseases: a therapeutic challenge for the new millennium. Hepatology 30:1099–1104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sinha AK (1972) Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 47:389–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Standish LJ, Sweet ES, Novack J, Wenner CA, Bridge C, Nelson A et al (2008) Breast cancer and the immune system. J Soc Integr Oncol 6:158–168PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Taniguchi M, Takeuchi T, Nakatsuka R, Watanabe T, Sato K (2004) Molecular process in acute liver injury and regeneration induced by carbon tetrachloride. Life Sci 75:1539–1549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Tchiegang C (2004) Comparative analysis of wet and dry softening of Schweinfurth’s olives (Canarium schweinfurthii, Engl.). J Food Eng 62:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tietz NW, Rinker AD, Shaw LM (1983) IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentration of enzymes, part 5: IFCC method for alkaline phosphatase. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 21(11):731–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tiribelli C, Ostrow JD (2005) The molecular basis of bilirubin encephalopathy and toxicity: report of an EASL Single Topic Conference. J Hepatol 43:156–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Valencia E, Marin A, Hardy G (2001) Glutathione nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints: part II. Nutrition 17:485–486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Weichselbaum TE (1946) Biuret method of serum total protein estimation. Am J Clin Pathol 16:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zoppi F, Fellini D (1976) Enzymatic colorimetric cholesterol determination. Clin Chem 22:690–691PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo
    • 1
  • Omolara Faith Yakubu
    • 1
  • Oluwatobi Samuel Adegbite
    • 1
  • Olajuwon Okubena
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and TechnologyCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Health Forever InternationalLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations