Advertisement

Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 315–320 | Cite as

Effects of glutamine and glutamate supplementation in dogs with hemorrhagic enteritis

  • A.K.S. Rodrigues
  • G.B. Silva
  • T.L.A.C. Almeida
  • N. M. Borba
  • H.E.C.C. Cordeiro Manso
  • H.C. Manso Filho
Review Article
  • 94 Downloads

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of glutamine and glutamate supplementation on hematological and biochemical biomarkers in dogs with clinical enteritis. Fifteen young dogs (3–10 months) with clinical enteritis were divided into two groups: group 1 (G-CON)—five animals subjected to medical treatment without supplementation and group 2 (G-GLN)—ten animals subjected to medical treatment and orally supplemented with 0.5 g/Kg per day of a glutamine and glutamate for 14 days. The following variables were measured: blood count, plasma glutamine and glutamate, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, and triglycerides. Supplementation increased the concentrations of GLN, PPT, globulin, albumin, urea, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood indices, and platelet count were not affected by supplementation. There were significant elevations in total white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) after supplementation, but other variables were not significantly different. A mixture of Gln + Glu along with drug treatment was therefore capable of producing elevations in immune cells (leukocytes and lymphocytes) and biomarkers associated with improved protein metabolism and health that favor recovery of the animals without causing damage to renal and hepatic systems.

Keywords

Amino acids Albumin Globulin Lymphocytes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the National Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and wanted to thank Ajinomoto of Brazil (Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil) for AminoGut donation and also to Professor Dr. Malcolm Watford, Rutgers University, for his review and comments on this paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

The Committee on Ethics and Animal Welfare of UFRPE-CEUA authorized this research by protocol #23082.006184/2010.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Almeida, TLAC (2012). Glutamine metabolism in health and sick dogs. Master dissertation at the Graduate Programa in Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco.Google Scholar
  2. Costa PRS, Conceição LG, Lopes MAF (2009) Nutrição enteral precoce com glutamina em cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica pelo parvovírus canino. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 61(5):1251–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dell’Orto V, Di Giancamillo A, Savoini G (2002) Influence of nucleotides and glutamine dietary supplementation on gut health of weaning piglets. J Anim Sci 80:220Google Scholar
  4. Hackett TB (2011) Gastrointestinal complications of critical illness in small animals. Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 41:759–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Humbert B, Nguyen P, Dumon H, Deschamps J, Darmaun D (2002) Does enteral glutamine modulate whole-body leucine kinetics in hypercatabolic dogs in a fed state? Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 51:628–635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaneko JJ (2008) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. 6th Edn. Academic Press, San Diego, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Lobley GE, Hoskin SO, Mcneil CJ (2001) Glutamine in animal science and production. J Nutr 131:2552–2531Google Scholar
  8. Manso Filho HC, Mckeever KH, Gordon ME, Costa HEC, Lagakos WS, Watford M (2008) Changes in glutamine metabolism indicate a mild catabolic state in the transition mare. J Anim Sci 86:3424–3431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Newsholme P (2001) Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, post-injury, surgery or infection? J Nutr 131: 2515S–2522SGoogle Scholar
  10. Rodrigues NCL, Nunes LA, Horie LM, Torrinhas R, Waitzberg DL (2007) Efeito da suplementação de glutamina sobre variáveis hematológicas e do estado nutricional de ratas desnutridas. Arquivo Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva 20:270–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Reeds PJ, Jahoor F (2001) The amino acids requirements of disease. ClinicalNutrition 20:15–22Google Scholar
  12. Sasaki J, Goryo M, Asahina M, Makara M, Shishido S, Okada K (1999) Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 61:175–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Schwimmer JB, Looi EE, Zheng S, Tso P (2002) Glutamine promotes triglyceride absorption in a dose-dependent manner. Am J Physiol 282:317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Souba WW (1993) Glutamine and cancer. Ann Surg 218:715–728CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Souba WW, Herskowitz K, Austgenn TR, Chen MK, Salloum RM (1990) Glutamine nutrition: theoretical considerations and therapeutic impact. J Parenter Enter Nutr 14:37–42Google Scholar
  16. Tessari P, Garibotto G (2000) Interorgan amino acid exchange. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3:51–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Vaz SG, Mesquita RM, Almeida TLAC, Teixeira MN, Manso HECCC, Manso Filho HC (2015) Elevation of glutamine concentration after blood donation in dogs. Comp Clin Pathol 24(2):329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (2005) Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th Edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Wernerman J (2008) Clinical use of glutamine supplementation. J Nutr 138:2040S–2044SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Wilmore DW (1997) Metabolic support of the gastrointestinal tract: potential gut protection during intensive cytotoxic therapy. Cancer 79(9):1794–1803CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Yoo SS, Field CJ, Mcburney MI (1997) Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs. J Nutr 127:2253–2259PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.K.S. Rodrigues
    • 1
  • G.B. Silva
    • 1
  • T.L.A.C. Almeida
    • 1
  • N. M. Borba
    • 2
  • H.E.C.C. Cordeiro Manso
    • 1
  • H.C. Manso Filho
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Biologia Molecular Aplicada da Produção Animal (BIOPA), Departamento de ZootecniaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Medicina VeterináriaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations