Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1565–1572 | Cite as

Effect of exercise on erythron, heart and respiratory rates in horses vaccinated against equine herpes virus 4/1 and equine influenza virus

  • Dimitrina GundashevaEmail author
Original Article


Limited data are available for the influence of physical training in jumping horses at the background of booster vaccination. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of physical exercise applied at the background of booster vaccination against equine herpes virus 4/1 (EHV 4/1) and equine influenza virus (EIV) on changes in the erythron, breathing and pulse rates of horses. The differences were investigated between vaccinated and exercised horses and vaccinated-only controls. Fifteen Hanoverian geldings were distributed into 3 groups: group А, 3 non-vaccinated animals; group В, 6 vaccinated and group С, 6 vaccinated horses submitted to physical exercise. Horses from groups B and C were vaccinated 1 year ago against EHV 4/1 and EIV. Вlood samples were evaluated for erythron parameters following standard procedures. The pulse and breathing rates were determined during the 14-day study period. The physical training of horses resulted in most substantial increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin and haematocrit on post exercise hour 0, day 1 and day 11; all values were within the reference ranges except for haemoglobin on hour 0. The red blood cell indices MCV and MCH were not significantly altered vs initial level except for MCHC on day 2 and day 11. Pulse and breathing rates were enhanced on post exercise hours 0 and 2 vs initial level and groups A and B. The results are important for evaluation of training effects on aerobic potential enhancing the physical performance.


Horses Exercise Booster vaccination Erythron Clinical indices 


  1. Aikhuomobhogbe PU, Orheruata AM (2006) Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Afr J Biotechnol 5(9):743–748Google Scholar
  2. Art T, Amory H, Desmecht D et al (1990) Effect of show jumping on heart rate, blood lactate and other plasma biochemical value. Equine Vet J Suppl 9:78–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Banik SC, Podder SC, Samad MA et al (2008) Sero-surveillance and immunization in sheep and goats against Peste des petit ruminants in Bangladesh. Bangl J Vet Med 6(2):185–190Google Scholar
  4. Cesta M (2006) Normal structure, function and histology of the spleen. Toxicol Pathol 34:455–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coenen M (2005) Exercise and stress: impact on adaptive processes involving water and electrolytes. Livest Prod Sci 92:131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cywinska A, Szarska E, Górecka R et al (2012) Acute phase protein concentrations after limited distance and long distance endurance rides in horses. Res Vet Sci 93:1402–1406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cywinska A, Witkowski L, Szarska E et al (2013) Serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration after training sessions in Arabian race and endurance horses. BMC Vet Res 9:91–97PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eckersall PD (2008) Proteins, proteomics, and the dysproteinemias. In: Kaneco JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss M (eds) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 117–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fan YK, Hsu JC, Peh HC et al (2002) The effects of endurance training on the hemogram of the horse. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 15:1348–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fasio F, Cassella S, Assenza A et al (2014) Blood biochemical changes in show jumpers during a simulated show jumping test. Veterinarski Arh 84(2):143–152Google Scholar
  11. Geor RI, McCutcheon LJ, Ecker GL et al (1995) Thermal and cardiorespiratory responses of horses to submaximal exercise under hot and humid conditions. Equne Vet J 20:125–132Google Scholar
  12. Grondin TM, Dewitt SF (2010) Normal hematology of the horse and donkey. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Wiley, Ames, pp 821–828Google Scholar
  13. Gul ST, Khan A, Ahmad M et al (2013) Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in Pakistani horses. Pak J Agri Sci 50:745–750Google Scholar
  14. Gundasheva DI, Georgieva TM (2012) Influence of physical exercise on the total calcium, albumin and total protein levels in horses with booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus 4/1. Trakia J Sci 10:348–352Google Scholar
  15. Hanzawa K, Kubo K, Kai M et al (1995) Effects of exercise on erythrocytes in normal and splenectomised Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet J 18:439–442Google Scholar
  16. Hargreaves BJ, Kronfeld DS, Naylor JR (1999) Ambient temperature and relative humidity influenced packed cell volume, total plasma protein and other variables in horses during an incremental submaximal field exercise test. Equine Vet J 31:314–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinchcliff KW, Kaneps AJ, Georg RJ (2014) Equine sport medicine and surgery. Basic and clinical science of the equine athlete, 2nd edn. Saunders, Еlsevier, Edinburgh, pp 921–927Google Scholar
  18. Jagric-Munih S, Nemec-Svete A, Zrimsek P et al (2012) Plasma malondialdehyde, biochemical and haematological parameters in Standardbred horses during a selected field exercise test. Acta Vet Beogr 62(1):53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kearns CF, Mc Keever KH, John-Alder H et al (2002) Relationship between body composition, blood volume and maximal oxygen uptake. Equine Vet J 34:485–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kingston JK (2004) Hematologic and serum biochemical response to exercise and training. In: Hinchliff KW, Kaneps AJ, Geor RJ (eds) Equine sports medicine and surgery. Saunders, Edinburg, pp 939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kramer JW (2000) Normal hematology of the horse. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1069–1074Google Scholar
  22. Kristensen L, Buhl R, Nosell K et al (2014) Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Can J Vet Res 78:97–102PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kruljc P, Čebulj-Kadunc N, Frangež R et al (2014) Changes in blood antioxidant, biochemical and hematological parameters in police horses on duty. Slov Vet Res 51(3):119–129Google Scholar
  24. Krumrich W (2006) Variability of clinical and haematological indices in the course of training exercise in jumping horses. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 50:391–396Google Scholar
  25. Kurosawa M, Nagata S, Takeda F et al (1998) Plasma catecholamine, adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to exhaustive incremental treadmill exercise of the Thoroughbred horse. J Vet Med Sci 9(1):9–18Google Scholar
  26. Lassen E, Swardson C (1995) Hematology and hemostasis in the horse: normal functions and common abnormalities. In: N. T. Messer (ed). Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract, W.B.Saunders, Philadelphia 11(3):351–389Google Scholar
  27. Liu Y, Luo YR, Lu X et al (2010) Investigation and comparative study on haematological traits, lysozyme concentration and T lymphocyte subpopulation in three pig breeds. J Anim Vet Adv 9(21):2748–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McGowan C (2008) Clinical pathology in the racing horse: the role of clinical pathology in assessing fitness and performance in the race horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 24(2):405–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Muñoz A, Riber C, Santisteban R et al (1999) Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events. J Vet Med Sci 61:13–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Muñoz A, Riber C, Trigo P et al (2008) Erythrocyte indices in relation to hydration and electrolytes in horses performing exercises of different intensity. Comp Clin Pathol 17:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pelegrini-Masini A, Baragli P, Tedeschi D et al (2000) Behavior of mean erythrocyte volume during submaximal treadmil exercise in horses. Comp Haematol Int 10:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pelegrini-Masini A, Tedeschi D, Baragli P et al (2003) Exercise-induced intravascular haemolysis in Standardbred horses. Comp Clin Path 12:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Persson S, Lydin G (1973) Circulatory effects of splenectomy in the horse: III. Effect on pulse-work relationship. Zentralbl Veterinärmed 20:521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Piccione G, Gianneto C, Fazio F et al (2007) Haematological response to different workload in jumper horses. Bulg J Vet Med 10:21–28Google Scholar
  35. Piccione G, Vazzana I, Giannetto C et al (2008) Modification of some haematological and haematochemical parameters in horse during long distance rides. Res J Vet Sci 1(1):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sabev S (2010) Effect of prolonged physical loading over blood morphological parameters in horses in the discipline endurance. J Mountain Agricul Balkans 13(5):1051–1058Google Scholar
  37. Sabev S (2011) Effect of the jumping activity in the course of training exercise on the level of serum cortisol, blood lactate and heart rate in horses. Trakia J Sci 9(1):78–82Google Scholar
  38. Sabev S, Petkov P (2009) Effect of exercise on hematological parameters in sport horses. Agricultural science. Animal studies & veterinary medicine. International Science conference “Economic and Society development on the the Base of Knowledge”, 4th-5th June 2009, Stara Zagora, Bg, 1:215–220Google Scholar
  39. Satué K, Hernández A, Minoz A (2012) Physiological factors in the interpretation of equine hematological profile. In: C. Lawrie (ed) Hematology Science and Practice. Intech, pp.573-596Google Scholar
  40. Šimpraga M, Novak I, Mazija H et al (2008) Hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches after vaccination against Newcastle disease. Period Biol 110(1):91–94Google Scholar
  41. Smith BP (2008) Large animal internal medicine, 4th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith JE, Erickson HH, Debowes RM et al (1989) Changes in circulating equine erythrocytes induced by brief, high-speed exercise. Equine Vet J 21:444–446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Szarska E (2002) Wykorzystanie badań diagnostycznych krwi do oceny stanu zdrowia I zaawansowania treningowego koni wyczynowych. Ed. SGGW, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  44. Thrall MA, Baker DC, Campell TW et al (2005) Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry, 1st edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  45. Zobba R, Ardu M, Nicolini S et al (2011) Physical, hematological and biochemical responses to acute intense exercise in polo horses. J Equine Vet Sci 31(9):542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Еzeasor CK, Emikpe BO, Anosa VO (2015) Haematological changes associated with intranasal and parenteral routes of vaccination agaist Peste des petits ruminants in West African dwarf goats. Comp Clin Pathol 24:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineTrakia UniversityStara ZagoraBulgaria

Personalised recommendations