Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 805–813 | Cite as

Cadmium accumulation and biochemical parameters in juvenile Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, upon sublethal cadmium exposure

  • Saeed Zahedi
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi
  • Maryam Rafati
  • Mehdi Mehrpoosh
Original Article


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to waterborne sublethal cadmium (Cd) concentration on juvenile Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. Fish were exposed to 0.68 mg/l of Cd for 1, 7, and 14 days, and metal bioaccumulations, biochemical responses, and gill ions were investigated. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the kidney (1, 7, and 14) and gills (7 and 14) for Cd concentrations between the control and treatment groups. Also, kidney Cd concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at metal treatments on day 14 in comparison to day 1. Results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in plasma glucose and cortisol concentrations between the experimental and control groups on day 1 only, and at metal treatments, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was observed on days 7 and 14 compared to day 1. No significant alterations were observed in plasma and liver protein contents during the course of the study. Neither triiodothyronine or thyroxine levels nor liver catalase or glutathione-S-transferase activities changed significantly with sublethal dose and with the time. In contrast, liver superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) at Cd treatments both over the control group and during Cd exposure on days 7 and 14. Finally, a comparison between the groups revealed no differences in gill ion levels for 2 weeks. This study demonstrated that sublethal dose of Cd was stressful for Persian sturgeon and resulted in rapid changes in some of the biochemical parameters.


Cadmium Cortisol CAT SOD GST Acipenser persicus 



We thank Dr. Ehsan Shahriary, Dr. Seyed Vali Hosseini, and Dr. Arash Zibaee for their useful comments. We also express our deepest sense of gratitude to Saeed Mahdavi Sahebi and Hossein Vaezzade for their help during the course of this work. We are also grateful to Dr. Ali Derakhshan for his final language revision.


  1. Agusa T, Kunito T, Tanabe S, Pourkazemi M, Aubrey DG (2004) Concentrations of trace elements in muscle of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 49:789–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad I, Pacheco M, Santos MA (2004) Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants as an adaptation to phagocyte-induced damage in Anguilla anguilla L. following in situ harbor water exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 57:290–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida JA, Novelli ELB, Dal Pai Silva M, Alves Junior R (2001) Environmental cadmium exposure and metabolic responses of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environ Pollut 114:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida JA, Diniz YS, Marques SFG, Faine LA, Ribas BO, Burneiko RC, Novelli ELB (2002) The use of the oxidative stress responses as biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to in vivo cadmium contamination. Environ Int 27:673–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anan Y, Kunito T, Ikemoto T, Kubota R, Watanabe I, Tanabe S, Miyazaki N, Petrov EA (2002) Elevated concentrations of trace elements in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded during the mass mortality events in 2000. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42:354–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anan Y, Kunito T, Tanabe S, Mitrofanov I, Aubrey DG (2005) Trace element accumulation in fishes collected from coastal waters of the Caspian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 51:882–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arrigo AP (1999) Gene expression and the thiol redox state. Free Radic Biol Med 27:936–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asagba SO, Eriyamremu GE, Igberaese ME (2008) Bioaccumulation of cadmium and its biochemical effects on selected tissues of the catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish Physiol Biochem 34:61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atli G, Canli M (2007) Enzymatic responses to metal exposures in a freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 145:282–287Google Scholar
  10. Bahmani M, Kazemi R, Donskaya P (2001) A comparative study of some hematological features in young reared sturgeons (Acipenser persicus and Huso huso). Fish Physiol Biochem 24:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barannikova IA (1995) Measures to maintain sturgeon fisheries under conditions of ecosystem changes. Proc Intern Sturg Symp, Moscow, VNIRO, pp 131–136Google Scholar
  12. Billard R, Lecointre G (2001) Biology and conservation of the sturgeons and paddle fish. Rev Fish Biol Fish 10:355–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brucka-Jastrzebska E, Protawicki M (2005) Effects of cadmium and nickel exposure on haematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 35(1):29–38Google Scholar
  14. Burger J (2008) Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium. Sci Total Environ 389:37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cattani O, Serra R, Isani G, Raggi G, Cortesi P, Carpene E (1996) Correlation between metallothionein and energy metabolism in sea bass, Dicentrachus labrax, exposed to cadmium. Comp Biochem Physiol C 113:193–199Google Scholar
  16. Chandrasekera LWHU, Pathiratne A, Pathiratne KAS (2008) Effects of water borne cadmium on biomarker enzymes and metallothioneins in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J Natn Sci Foundation Sri Lanka 36(4):315–322Google Scholar
  17. Charkhabi AH, Sakizadeh M, Rafiee G (2005) Seasonal fluctuation of heavy metal pollution in Iran’s Siahrood River. Environ Sci Pollut Res 12:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cicik B, Engin K (2005) The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758). Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29:113–117Google Scholar
  19. Dabrowski K (2001) Ascorbic acid in aquatic organisms: status and perspectives. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  20. De Conto CC, Petit-Ramel M, Faure R, Garin D, Bouvet Y (1999) Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp, Cyprinus carpio tissue. Comp Biochem Physiol C 122:345–352Google Scholar
  21. De Jesus EG, Inui Y, Hirano T (1990) Cortisol enhances the stimulating action of thyroid and steroid hormones on dorsal fin ray resorption of flounder larvae in vitro. Gen Comp Endocrinol 79:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De la Torre FR, Salibian A, Ferrari L (2000) Biomarkers assessment in juvenile Cyprinus carpio exposed to waterborne cadmium. Environ Pollut 109:277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Mora S, Turner T (2004) The Caspian Sea: a microcosm for environmental science and international cooperation. Mar Pollut Bull 48:26–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Mora S, Sheikholeslami MR, Wyse E, Azemard S, Cassi R (2004a) An assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Caspian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 48:61–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Mora S, Villeneuve JP, Sheikholeslami MR, Cattini C, Tolosa I (2004b) Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediment. Mar Pollut Bull 48:30–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Smet H, Blust R (2001) Stress responses and changes in protein metabolism in carp Cyprinus carpio during cadmium exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 48:255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Erickson RJ, Nichols JV, Cook PM, Ankley T (2008) Bioavailability of chemical contaminants in aquatic systems. In: Di Giuliu RT, Hinton DE (eds) The toxicology of fishes. CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Filho DW (1996) Fish antioxidant defenses—a comparative approach. Braz Med Biol Res 29:1735–1742Google Scholar
  29. Fu H, Steinebach OM, van den Hamer CJA, Balm PHM, Lock RAC (1990) Involvement of cortisol and metallothionein-like proteins in the physiological responses of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to sub-lethal cadmium stress. Aquat Toxicol 16:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garg S, Gupta RK, Jain KL (2008) Sub-lethal effects of heavy metals on biochemical composition and their recovery in Indian major carps. J Hazard Mater 163(2–3):1369–1384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghazaly KS (1992) Hematological and physiological responses to sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium in a freshwater teleost, Tilapia zillii. Water Air Soil Pollut 64:551–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giles MA (1984) Electrolyte and water balance in plasma and urine of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during chronic exposure to cadmium. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41:1678–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione S-transferases: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249(25):7130–7139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Halliwell B (1994) Free radicals and antioxidants: a personal view. Nutr Rev 52:253–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hansen JA, Welsh PG, Lipton J, Suedkamp MJ (2002) The effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the growth and survival of juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Aquat Toxicol 58:165–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haux C, Larsson A (1984) Long-term sublethal physiological effects on rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, during exposure to cadmium and after subsequent recovery. Aquat Toxicol 5:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heath AG (1995) Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  38. Hontela A, Dumont P, Duclos D, Fortin R (1995) Endocrine and metabolic dysfunction in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, exposed to organic contaminants and heavy metals in the St. Lawrence River. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:725–731Google Scholar
  39. Hontela A, Daniel C, Ricard AC (1996) Effects of acute and subacute exposures to cadmium on the interrenal and thyroid function in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquat Toxicol 35:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Isani G, Andreani G, Cocchioni F, Fedeli D, Carpene E, Falcioni G (2009) Cadmium accumulation and biochemical responses in Sparus aurata following sub-lethal cadmium exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72(1):224–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. IUCN (2010) The IUCN red list of threatened animals. Version 2010. 4. Access 24 June 2010
  42. Jackim E, Hamlin JM, Sonis S (1970) Effects of metal poisoning on five liver enzymes in the killfish (Fundulus heteroclitus). J Fish Res Board Can 27:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kajiwara N, Niimi S, Watanabe M, Ito Y, Takahashi S, Tanabe S, Khuraskin LS, Miyazaki N (2002) Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000. Environ Pollut 117:391–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kajiwara N, Ueno D, Monirith I, Tanabe S, Pourkazemi M, Aubrey DG (2003) Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002. Mar Pollut Bull 46:741–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karpinsky MG (1992) Aspects of the Caspian Sea benthic ecosystem. Mar Pollut Bull 24:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Khodorevskaya RP, Dovgopol GF, Zhuravleva OL, Vlasenko AD (1997) Present status of commercial stocks of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea basin. Environ Biol Fishes 48:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kim SG, Jee JH, Kang JC (2004) Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure. Environ Pollut 127:117–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klavercamp JE, McDonald WA, Duncan DA, Wagenann R (1984) Methalothionein and acclimation to heavy metals in fish: a review. In: Cairnes VW, Hodson PV, Nraigu JO (eds) Contaminants effects on fisheries. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Korshenko A, Gul AG (2005) Pollution of the Caspian Sea. Hdb Env Chem 5:109–142Google Scholar
  50. Kunito T, Anan A, Ikemoto T, Kubota R, Tanabe S (2003) Possible link between elevated accumulation of trace elements and canine distemper virus infection in the Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) stranded in 2000 and 2001. J Phys 107:1235–1238Google Scholar
  51. McCord JM, Fridovich I (1969) Superoxide dismutase: an enzymatic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J Biol Chem 244:6049–6055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. McGeer JC, Szebedinszkey C, McDonald G, Wood CM (2000) Effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure to waterborne Cu, Cd or Zn in rainbow trout. I: iono-regulatory disturbance and metabolic costs. Aquat Toxicol 50:231–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mirzaei J, Nezami S, Mehdinejad K, Pajand ZO, Alinejad R (2004) Acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of heavy metals (Pb,Zn,Cu and Cd) in two species of sturgeon (Acipenser persicus and Acipenser stellatus). In: 5th Symposium of Sturgeon Fish. Ramsar, IranGoogle Scholar
  54. Mommsen TP, Vijayan MM, Moon TW (1999) Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Rev Fish Biol Fish 9:211–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore JW (1991) Inorganic contaminants of surface water: research and monitoring priorities. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore MJ, Mitrofanov IV, Valentini SS, Volkov VV, Kurbskiy AV, Zhimbey EN, Eglinton LB, Stegeman JJ (2003) Cytochrome p4501A expression, chemical contaminants and histopathology in roach, goby and sturgeon and chemical contaminants in sediments from the Caspian Sea, Lake Balkhash and the Ily River Delta, Kazakhstan. Mar Pollut Bull 46:107–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Olsson PE, Larsson A, Haux C (1996) Influence of seasonal changes in water temperature on cadmium inducibility of hepatic and renal metallothionein in rainbow trout. Mar Environ Res 42:41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pandey S, Parvez S, Sayeed I, Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Raisuddin S (2003) Biomarkers of oxidative stress: a comparative study of river Yamuna fish Wallago attu (Bl. & Schn.). Sci Total Environ 309:105–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Parizanganeh A, Lakhan VC, Ahmad SR (2006) Pollution of the Caspian Sea marine environment along the Iranian coast. Environ Inform Arch 4:209–217Google Scholar
  60. Parizanganeh A, Lakhan VC, Jalalian H, Ahmad SR (2008) Contamination of nearshore surficial sediments from the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Soil Sediment Contam 17:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pelgrom SMGJ, Lock RAC, Balm PHM, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1995) Effects of combined waterborne cadmium and copper exposures on ionic composition and plasma cortisol in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 111:227–235Google Scholar
  62. Pourang N, Tanabe S, Rezvani S, Dennis JH (2005) Trace elements accumulation in edible tissues of five sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea. Environ Monit Assess 100:89–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Power DM, Llewellyn L, Faustino M, Nowell MA, Björnsson BT, Einarsdottir IE, Canario AV, Sweeney GE (2001) Review: thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C 130:447–459Google Scholar
  64. Pratap HB, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1990) Effects of water-borne cadmium on plasma cortisol and glucose in the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 95:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pratap HB, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1993) Effects of ambient and dietary cadmium on pavement cells, chloride cells and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills of the freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus at normal and high cadmium levels in the ambient water. Aquat Toxicol 26:133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Price A, Lucas PW, Lea PJ (1990) Age dependent damage and glutathione metabolism in ozone fumigated barley: a leaf section approach. J Exp Bot 41:1309–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reid SD, McDonald DG (1988) Effects of cadmium, copper, and low pH on ion fluxes in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ricard AC, Daniel C, Holenta A (1998) Effects of subchronic exposure to cadmium chloride on endocrine and metabolic functions in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34:377–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roesijadi G (1996) Metallothionein and its role in toxic metal regulation. Comp Biochem Physiol C 113:117–123Google Scholar
  70. Roméo M, Bennani N, Gnassia-Barelli M, Lafaurie M, Girard JP (2000) Cadmium and copper display different responses towards oxidative stress in the kidney of the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquat Toxicol 48:185–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruas CBG, Carvalho Cdos S, de Araújo HSS, Espíndola ELG, Fernandes MN (2008) Oxidative stress biomarkers of exposure in the blood of cichlid species from a metal-contaminated river. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 71:86–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sadeghi Rad M (2002) Heavy metal determination (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg) in muscle tissue and caviar in two sturgeon species A. persicus and A. stellatus in the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Final Report. Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, TehranGoogle Scholar
  73. Saeedi M, Karbassi A (2006) Heavy metals pollution and speciation in sediments of southern part of the Caspian Sea. Pak J Biol Sci 9(4):735–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saeedi M, Karbassi A, Bidhendi G, Mehrdadi N (2006) Effect of human activities on heavy metal accumulation in Tadjan River water in Mazandran province. Mohitshenasi 40:41–50Google Scholar
  75. Saeedi M, Abesi A, Jamshidi A (2010) Assessment of heavy metal and oil pollution of sediments of south eastern Caspian Sea using indices. J Enviro Stud 36(53):21–38Google Scholar
  76. Sayer MDJ, Reader JP, Morris R (1991) Effects of six trace metals on calcium fluxes in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in soft water. J Comp Physiol B 161:537–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schreck CB, Lorz HW (1978) Stress response of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisurch) elicited by cadmium and copper and potential use of cortisol as an indicator of stress. J Fish Res Bd Can 35:1124–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Scott GR, Sloman KA, Rouleau C, Wood CM (2003) Cadmium disrupts behavioural and physiological responses to alarm substance in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Exp Biol 206:1779–1790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Siraj Basha P, Usha Rani A (2003) Cadmium-induced antioxidant defense mechanism in freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:218–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sloman KA, Scott GR, Diao Z, Rouleau C, Wood CM, McDonald DG (2003) Cadmium affects the social behavior of rainbow trout, Oncorhychus mykiss. Aquat Toxicol 65:171–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Thophon S, Kruatrachue M, Upatham ES, Pokethitiyook P, Sahaphong S, Jaritkhuan S (2003) Histopathological alterations of white sea bass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and sub acute cadmium exposure. Environ Pollut 121:307–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tilton SC, Foran CM, Benson WH (2003) Effects of cadmium on the reproductive axis of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Comp Biochem Physiol C 136:265–276Google Scholar
  84. Tolosa I, de Mora SJ, Sheikholeslami MR, Villeneuve J-P, Bartocci J, Cattini C (2004) Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal Caspian Sea sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 48(1–2):44–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tort L, Kargacin B, Torres P, Giralt M, Hidalgo J (1996) The effect of cadmium exposure and stress on plasma cortisol, metallothionein levels and oxidative status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver. Comp Biochem Physiol C 114:29–34Google Scholar
  86. Trenzado C, Hidalgo MC, Garcia-Gallego M, Morals AE, Furne M, Domezain A, Domezain J, Sanz A (2006) Antioxidant enzymes and lipid proxidation in sturgeon, Acipenser naccari and trout Oncorhunchus mukiss: a comparative study. Aquaculture 254:758–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Van der Oost R, Beyer J, Vermeulen NPE (2003) Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13:57–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Varedi SE, Gholamipoor S, Rezaei M (2010) The heavy metals concentrations in water column of 5, 10 and 50 m in the southern part of the Caspian Sea (In Persian). In: The 1st National-Regional Conference on Ecology of the Caspian Sea (FCECS2010). Sari, IranGoogle Scholar
  89. Varghese S, Shameena B, Oommen OV (2001) Thyroid hormones regulate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Comp Biochem Physiol B 128:165–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Verbost PM, Flik G, Lock RAC, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1988) Cadmium inhibits plasma membrane calcium transport. J Membr Biol 102:97–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Watanabe I, Kunito T, Tanabe S, Amano M, Koyama Y, Miyazaki N, Petrov EA, Tatsukawa R (2002) Accumulation of heavy metals in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:109–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wendelaar Bonga SE (1997) The stress response in fish. Physiol Rev 77:591–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wilhelm Filho D, Giulivi C, Boveris A (1993) Antioxidant defences in marine fish I. Teleosts. Comp Biochem Physiol C 106:409–413Google Scholar
  94. Williams DR, Giesy JP Jr (1978) Relative importance of food and water sources to cadmium uptake by Gambusia affinis. Environ Res 16:326–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Winston GW, Di Giulio RT (1991) Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms in aquatic organisms. Aquat Toxicol 19:137–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wong DWS, Whitaker JR (2003) Catalase. In: Whitaker JR, Voragen AGJ, Wong DWS (eds) Handbook of food enzymology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 389–401Google Scholar
  97. Wong CKC, Wong MH (2000) Morphological and biochemical changes in the gills of Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to ambient cadmium exposure. Aquat Toxicol 48:517–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu SM, Shih MJ, Ho YC (2007) Toxicological stress response and cadmium distribution in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp) upon cadmium exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C 145:218–226Google Scholar
  99. Young G, Lin RJ (1988) Response on the interrenal to adrenocorticotropic hormone after short term thyroxine treatment of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). J Exp Zool 245:53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Zahedi
    • 1
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi
    • 1
  • Maryam Rafati
    • 2
  • Mehdi Mehrpoosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Department of Natural Resources, Savadkooh BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySavadkoohIran

Personalised recommendations