Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 645–648

A study on bacterial flora and antibacterial resistance of yolk sac infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

Original Article
  • 120 Downloads

Abstract

In order to study Enterobacteriaceae contamination of dead-in-shell embryos in quails and the antibacterial resistance of isolated salmonellae, 335 quail eggs which did not have external piping during the hatching period were transferred to the microbiology laboratory. Swab samples were collected from the interior contents of individual eggs, and the swabs were inoculated into tryptic soy broths (TSB) and selenite-F broths in groups of five swabs in each media. All cultured media were incubated at 37 °C. After 24 h, the TSB cultures were streaked on MacConkey agars, but cultures in selenite-F were subcultured on Salmonella–Shigella agars. After 24–48 h incubation of the solid media, the plates were observed for colony formation. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed using standard bacteriological and biochemical procedures. Final confirmation of Salmonella in the isolates was undertaken using the slide serum agglutination test. Disc diffusion test on Muller–Hinton agar was used to determine the sensitivity of salmonellae isolates to antibacterial agents. Bacterial cultures of unhatched quail eggs showed 15.8 % contamination with Enterobacteriaceae. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the unhatched quail eggs was 2.98 %. With respect to resistance of antimicrobial agents to Salmonella spp., all of the 10 antibiotics used (ampicillin, colistin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline) showed 100 % susceptibility to gentamycin. Drug resistance to ampicillin, colistin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and tetracycline were 80, 10, 50, 10, 40, 80 and 80 %, respectively. There were no observed drug resistance among the salmonellae isolates to gentamycin, furazolidone and norfloxacin.

Keywords

Japanese quail Antibacterial resistance Yolk sac infection 

References

  1. Adesiyum A, Offiah N, Seepersadsingh N, Rodrigo S, Lashley V, Musai L (2007) Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from table eggs. Food Control 18:306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anjum AD (1997) Poultry diseases. VetAg, Faisaladad, pp 178–180Google Scholar
  3. Bower CK, Daeschel MA (1999) Resistance responses of microorganisms in food environments. Int J Food Microbiol 50:33–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun P, Fehlhaber K (1995) Migration of Salmonella enteritidis from the albumen into the egg yolk. Int J Food Microbiol 25:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carrique-Mas JJ, Papadopoulou C, Evans SJ, Wales A, Teale CJ, Davies RH (2008) Trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from animals in Great Britain from 1990 to 2005. Vet Rec 162:541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Foley SL, Lynne AM (2008) Food animal-associated Salmonella challenges: pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. J Anim Sci 86:E173–E187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gay JM, Rice DH, Steiger JH (1994) Prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding by cull dairy cattle marketed in Washington State. J Food Prot 57:195–197Google Scholar
  8. Glynn MK, Bopp C, Dewitt W, Dabney P, Mokhtar M, Angulo FJ (1998) Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl J Med 338:1333–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Graziani C, Busani L, Dionisi AM, Lucarelli C, Owczarek S, Ricci A, Mancin M, Caprioli A, Luzzi I (2008) Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from human and animal sources in Italy. Vet Microbiol 128:414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haque SS (2011) Therapeutic effect of nitric oxide and antibiotic against Salmonella typhimurium. J Infect Dis and Immun 3(15):258–261Google Scholar
  11. Humphrey TJ, Whitehead A, Gawler AHL, Henley A, Rowe B (1991) Number of Salmonella enteritidis in the contents of naturally contaminated hen's egg. Epidemiol Infect 106:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jahantigh M, Nili H (2010) Drug resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigeon eggs. Comp Clin Pathol 19:437–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. KasimogluDogru A, Ayaz ND, Gencay YE (2010) Serotype identification and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken carcasses. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:893–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khan KA, Khan SA, Aslam A, Rabbani M, Tipu MY (2004) Factors contributing to yolk retention in poultry: a review. Pak Vet J 24(1):46–51Google Scholar
  15. Nazer AHK, Safari GH (1994) Bacterial flora from dead-in-shell chicken embryos and their drug resistance in Fars Province of Iran. Ind J Anim Sci 64(10):1006–1009Google Scholar
  16. Pan Z, Wang X, Zhang X, Geng S, Chen X, Pan W, Cong Q, Liu X, Jiao X, Liu X (2009) Changes in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Pullorum isolates in China from 1962 to 2007. Vet Microbiol 136:387–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pan ZM, Geng SZ, Zhou YQ, Liu ZY, Fang Q, Liu BB, Jiao XA (2010) Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella sp. isolated from domestic animals in eastern China. J Anim Vet Adv 9(17):2290–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Quednau M, Ahrne S, Petersson AC, Molin G (1998) Antibiotic resistant strains of Enterococcus isolated from Swedish and Danish retailed chicken and pork. J Appl Microbiol 84:1163–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR (1994) Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolf, London, pp 95–102Google Scholar
  20. Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME, Donnelly WJ, Leonard FC (2002) Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  21. Roy P, Purushothaman V, Koteeswaran A, Dhillon AS (2006) Isolation, characterization, and antimicrobial drug resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from Japanese quail and their environment. J Appl Poult Res 15:442–446Google Scholar
  22. Saif YM, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Swayne DE (2008) Diseases of poultry, 12th edn. Iowa State Press, Iowa, pp 620–651Google Scholar
  23. Scioli C, Espostito S, Anzilotti G, Pavone A, Pennucci C (1983) Transferable drug resistance in Esherichia coli isolated from antibiotic-fed chickens. Poult Sci 62:382–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singer RS, Hofacre CL (2006) Potential impacts of antibiotic use in poultry production. Avian Dis 50:161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Swayne DE, Glisson JR, Jackwood MW, Pearson JE, Reed WM (1998) A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens. 4th edn. American Association of Avian Pathologists, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, pp 4–16Google Scholar
  26. Van Duijkeren E, Wannet WJB, Houwers DJ, Van Pelt W (2003) Antimicrobial susceptibilities of salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in the Netherlands from 1984 to 2001. J Clin Microbiol 41:3574–3578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vo AT, Van Duijkeren E, Fluit AC, Heck ME, Verbruggen A, Maas HM, Gaastra W (2006) Distribution of Salmonella enterica serovars from humans, livestock and meat in Vietnam and the dominance of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 90. Vet Microbiol 113:153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wegner HC, Aarestrup FM, Gerner-Smidt P, Bager F (1999) Transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria from animals to man. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 92:51–57Google Scholar
  29. Woodward MJ, Kirwan SES (1996) Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in eggs by the polymerase chain reaction. Vet Rec 138:411–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Jahantigh
    • 1
  • Ahmad Rashki
    • 2
  • Mohsen Najimi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Poultry Diseases, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZabolZabolIran
  2. 2.Department of Pathobiolgy, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZabolZabolIran

Personalised recommendations