Hemoprotozoa in free-ranging birds from rural areas of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran
- 177 Downloads
A range of protozoa infect the blood of birds including Plasmodium, Aegyptianella, Haemoproteus, and Leukocytozoon and are transmitted by known vectors. The parasites occur worldwide and can cause reduced production, anemia, and even death. The aim of present study was to undertake the first survey of hemoprotozoa in the native birds of the Central zone of Mazandaran province. A total of 213 blood samples were collected from five different species of birds, 70 (32.9%) were infected by at least one parasite. The prevalence of infection by Aegyptianella pullorum, Plasmodium spp., and Haemoproteus spp. was 23.9%, 2.3%, and 6.6%, respectively. Our results showed a high prevalence of A. pullorum (38.3%) among ducks, as well as a high prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. (87.5%) in pigeons. Moreover, only ducks and turkeys were found to be infected with Plasmodium spp. Infections with multiple genera were found in 30.04% (64/213) of birds examined which included 91.4% of the 70 infected birds. It also seems that birds which migrate to the area annually might play an important role in infecting domestic birds in the province.
KeywordsHematozoa Blood protozoa Indigenous birds Plasmodium spp. Haemoproteus spp. Aegyptianella spp.
The authors would like to thank the farmers for their field assistance. The work has been supported by Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The authors are grateful to Dr. H. Noyes for valuable comments and reading the manuscript.
- Atkinson CT, Van Riper HIC (1991) Pathogenicity and epizootiology of avian Haematozoa: Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus. In: Loye JE, Zuk M (eds) Bird–parasite interactions, ecology, evolution and behaviour, Oxford Ornithology Series. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 19–48Google Scholar
- Behrouzi-rad B (1994) Geese, swans, ducks of Iran. Environment Protection Organization, TehranGoogle Scholar
- Cheke R, Hassall M, Peirce MA (1976) Blood parasites of British birds and notes on their seasonal occurrence at two rural sites in England. J Wildlife Dis 12:133–138Google Scholar
- Gordon FB, Francois T, Jean B, Marc A (1982) Blood parasites of some birds from the Lorraine Region, France. J Wildlife Dis 18:81–88Google Scholar
- Jain NC (1993) Essentials of veterinary hematology, 1st edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 349–379Google Scholar
- Kate IH, Václav B, Ivan L (2006) Blood parasites in passerine birds in Slovakian East Carpathians. Acta Protozool 45:105–109Google Scholar
- Mahjouri E (2001) Historical geography of Mazandaran Province. Geographical Organization Press, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
- Mangan JA, Monahan IM, Butcher PD (2002) Gene expression during host–pathogen interactions: approaches to bacterial mRNA extraction and labelling for microarray analysis. In: Wren B (ed) Methods in microbiology. Academic Press, New York, pp 137–151Google Scholar
- Shurulinkov P, Golemansky V (2003) Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon (Sporozoa: Haemosporida) of wild birds in Bulgaria. Acta Protozool 42:205–214Google Scholar
- Yakumin MP, Zhazyltaeb TA (1977) The blood parasites of wild and domestic birds in Kazakhstan. Trudy Institula zoologia Akademil Nauk Kazakhshoi USSR 37:124–148Google Scholar