Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 1–4 | Cite as

Antimicrobial resistance to Citrobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. isolated from goose eggs

Original Article


Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for a variety of acute and chronic diseases in poultry. Infected poultry flocks are also among the most important reservoirs of salmonellae that can be transmitted through the food chain to humans. Citrobacter belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family which is closely related to Salmonella. The aim of this study was to examine goose eggs contaminated with Citrobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and determine the drug resistance pattern of the isolated organisms. Two hundred and forty goose eggs were collected in Zabol region and were transferred to the microbiology laboratory of Zabol University. The egg shells were thoroughly disinfected and the interior contents of individual eggs were pooled into a sterile beaker in groups of four resulting in 60 samples overall. These samples were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Swab samples were prepared from the incubated contents and then subcultured on several solid media. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed using standard bacteriological and biochemical procedures. Final confirmation of Salmonella in the isolates was by slide serum agglutination test. The isolation rates of Salmonella spp. from the egg samples were determined to be at least 3.75%. Disc diffusion tests on Muller–Hinton agar were used to determine the sensitivity to antibacterial agents. Ten antibiotics were studied: ampicillin, colistin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline. Both genera of the bacteria showed 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Salmonella isolates showed the most resistance to tetracycline (100%), but Citrobacter isolates showed the most resistance to cephalexin and furazolidone (88.8%).


Drug resistance Goose eggs Citrobacter Salmonella 


  1. Adesiyum A, Offiah N, Seepersadsingh N, Rodrigo S, Lashley V, Musai L (2007) Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from table eggs. Food Control 18:306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Braun P, Fehlhaber K (1995) Migration of Salmonella enteritidis from the albumen into the egg yolk. Int J Food Microbiol 25:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carrique-Mas JJ, Papadopoulou C, Evans SJ, Wales A, Teale CJ, Davies RH (2008) Trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from animals in Great Britain from 1990 to 2005. Vet Rec 162:541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Foley SL, Lynne AM (2008) Food animal-associated salmonella challenges: pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. J Anim Sci 86:E173–E187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Glynn MK, Bopp C, Dewitt W, Dabney P, Mokhtar M, Angulo FJ (1998) Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl J Med 338:1333–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Graziani C, Busani L, Dionisi AM, Lucarelli C, Owczarek S, Ricci A, Mancin M, Caprioli A, Luzzi I (2008) Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium from human and animal sources in Italy. Vet Microbiol 128:414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gross RJ, Rowe B (1983) Citrobacter koseri (syn. C. diversus): biotype, serogroup and drug resistance patterns of 517 strains. J Hyg Camb 90:233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Humphrey TJ, Whitehead A, Gawler AHL, Henley A, Rowe B (1991) Number of Salmonella enteritidis in the contents of naturally contaminated hen’s egg. Epidemiol Infect 106:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jahantigh M, Nili H (2010) Drug resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigeon eggs. Comp Clin Pathol 19:437–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li B, YongLu W, Dong J, XueMei B, HaiJian Z, Yan L, Yong T, ZhiFeng S, ChangYun Y, JianGuo X (2009) Study on drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Citrobacter. Dis Surveillance 24(5):316–318Google Scholar
  11. Nazer AHK, Safari GH (1994) Bacterial flora from dead-in-shell chicken embryos and their drug resistance in Fars Province of Iran. Ind J Anim Sci 64(10):1006–1009Google Scholar
  12. Pan Z, Wang X, Zhang X, Geng S, Chen X, Pan W, Cong Q, Liu X, Jiao X, Liu X (2009) Changes in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar pullorum isolates in China from 1962 to 2007. Vet Microbiol 136:387–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pan ZM, Geng SZ, Zhou YQ, Liu ZY, Fang Q, Liu BB, Jiao XA (2010) Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella sp. isolated from domestic animals in eastern China. J Anim Vet Adv 9(17):2290–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR (1994) Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolf Publishing, London, pp 95–102Google Scholar
  15. Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME, Donnelly WJ, Leonard FC (2002) Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  16. Suwansrinon K, Wilde H, Sitprija V, Hanvesakul R (2005) Enteric fever-like illness caused by infection with Citrobacter amalonaticus. J Med Assoc Thai 88(6):837–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Swayne DE, Glisson JR, Jackwood MW, Pearson JE, Reed WM (1998) A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens, 4th edn. American Association of Avian Pathologists, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, pp 4–13Google Scholar
  18. Van Duijkeren E, Wannet WJB, Houwers DJ, Van Pelt W (2003) Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in the Netherlands from 1984 to 2001. J Clin Microbiol 41:3574–3578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vo AT, Van Duijkeren E, Fluit AC, Heck ME, Verbruggen A, Maas HM, Gaastra W (2006) Distribution of Salmonella enterica serovars from humans, livestock and meat in Vietnam and the dominance of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 90. Vet Microbiol 113:153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Woodward MJ, Kirwan SES (1996) Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in eggs by the polymerase chain reaction. Vet Rec 138:411–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Poultry Diseases, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZabolZabolIran

Personalised recommendations