Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 309–313

Complete blood count, total plasma protein, neutrophil oxidative metabolism, and lipid peroxidation in female dogs with pyometra associated with Escherichia coli

  • Mauren Picada Emanuelli
  • Danieli Brolo Martins
  • Patrícia Wolkmer
  • Alfredo Quites Antoniazzi
  • Tatiana Emanuelli
  • Agueda Castagna de Vargas
  • Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes
Original Article

Abstract

Pyometra is a common uterine disease found in adult female dogs during diestrus and it typically presents with several systemic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate complete blood counts (CBC), neutrophil oxidative metabolism, and lipid peroxidation in female dogs diagnosed with pyometra associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Twenty adult female dogs, from 2 to 14 years old, were allocated into two different groups. Animals placed in group 1 (G1) (n = 12) were diagnosed with pyometra associated with E. coli and animals placed in group 2 (G2) (n = 8) were clinically healthy female dogs. Red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were significantly lower in G1 than in G2. A significant increase in total plasma protein and white blood cell count (segmented neutrophils, band neutrophils, and monocytes) occurred in G1 when compared to G2. The neutrophil oxidative metabolism was also increased in G1, but lipid peroxidation showed no difference between the two groups. CBC results revealed a normocytic, normochromic anemia and leukocytosis characterized by a neutrophilia with a left shift in adult female dogs with pyometra associated with E. coli. Additionally, neutrophil oxidative metabolism showed an increase in its activity without producing lipid peroxidation, which possibly indicates that the anemia in canine pyometra is not related to oxidative stress.

Keywords

Anemia Leukocytosis Uterus Bacterium Oxidative stress Canine 

References

  1. Babior BM (1984) The respiratory burst of phagocytes. J Clin Invest 73:599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beisel WR, Shepel S, Long RF (1967) Neutrophile alkaline phosphatase changes in tularemia, sandfly fever, Q fever and noninfectious fevers. Blood 29:257–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Claster S, Chiu DT, Quintanilha A, Lubin B (1984) Neutrophils mediate lipid peroxidation in human red cells. Blood 64:1079–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Coggan JA (2004) Microbiological study of intrauterine secretion from bitches with pyometra and research of virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolates. Arq Inst Biol 71:513–515Google Scholar
  5. Dhaliwal GK, Wray C, Noakes DE (1998) Uterine bacterial flora and uterine lesions in bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (pyometra). Vet Rec 143:659–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Feigin RD (1971) Nitroblue tetrazolium die test as an aid in the differential diagnosis of febrile disorders. J Pediatr 78:230–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Feldman EC (2004) The cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex and infertility in female dogs. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC (eds) Textbook of veterinary internal medicine—diseases of the dog and the cat, 5th edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1549–1565Google Scholar
  8. Ferreira ALA, Matsubara LS (1997) Radicais livres: conceitos, doenças relacionadas, sistema de defesa e estresse oxidativo. Rev Assoc Méd Bras 43:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fransson B (1997) Bacteriological finding, blood chemistry profiles and plasma endotoxin levels in bitches with pyometra or other uterine disease. Zentralbl Veterinärmed A 44:417–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fransson B, Ragle CA (2003) Canine pyometra: an update on pathogenesis and treatment. Compendium 25:602–611Google Scholar
  11. Fukuda S (2001) Incidence of pyometra in colony-raised beagle dogs. Experimental animals. Jpn Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50:325–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Georgieva TM, Penchev Georgiev I, Iliev Y, Petrov VS, Vachkov A, Kanelov IN, Tanev SI, Zapryanova D, Pavlov AI, Eckersall D (2008) Blood serum concentrations of total proteins and main protein fractions in weaning rabbits experimentally infected with E. coli. Revue Méd Vét 159:431–436Google Scholar
  13. Kitagawa S, Takaku F, Sakamoto S (1980) A comparison of the superoxide-releasing response in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. J Immunol 125:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Meinkoth JH, Clinkenbeard KD (2000) Normal hematology of the dog. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology, 5th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1057–1063Google Scholar
  15. Miller DR, Kaplan HG (1970) Decreased nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction in the phagocytes of patients receiving prednisone. Pediatrics 45:861–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Noakes DE, Dhaliwal GK, England GC (2001) Cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra in dogs: a review of the causes and pathogenesis. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 57:395–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Park BH, Good RA (1970) NBT test stimulated. Lancet 2:616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pfafferott C, Meiselman HJ, Hochstein P (1982) The effect of malonyldialdehyde on erythrocyte deformability. Blood 59:12–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Poli G, Mantelli F (1974) Il “test” N.B.T. negli animali domestici: valori normali. Clin Vet 97:241–247Google Scholar
  21. Poli G, Nicoletti G, Faravelli G (1973) Nitroblue tetrazolium (N.B.T.) test nel cane. Folia Vet Lat 3:215–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Quinn PJ, Carter GR, Carter ME (1994) Clinical veterinary microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, London, 648pGoogle Scholar
  23. Sandholm M, Vasenius H, Kivist AK (1975) Pathogenesis of canine pyometra. J Am Vet Med Assoc 167:1006–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Seebach JD, Morant R, Regg R, Seifert B, Fehr J (1997) The diagnostic value of the neutrophil left shift in predicting inflammatory and infectious disease. Am J Clin Pathol 107:582–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith FO (2006) Canine pyometra. Theriogenology 66:610–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stockham SL (2000) Hematologic changes due to bacterial infections. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology, 5th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 38–43Google Scholar
  27. Weiss DJ (2000) The erythrocytes. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology, 5th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 671–764Google Scholar
  28. Weiss DJ, Klausner JS (1988) Neutrophil-induced erythrocyte injury: a potential cause of erythrocyte destruction in the anemia associated with inflammatory disease. Vet Pathol 25:450–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiss DJ, Murtaugh MP (1990) Activated neutrophils induce erythrocyte immunoglobulin binding and membrane protein degradation. J Leukoc Biol 48:438–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Weiss SJ, Lobuglio AF (1982) Phagocytic generated oxygen metabolites and cellular injury. Lab Invest 47:5–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wintrobe MM (1939) Diagnostic significance of changes in leukocytes. Bull NY Acad Med 15:223–240Google Scholar
  32. Yoshioka T (1979) Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against active-oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:372–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zinkl JG, Kabbur MB (1997) Neutrophil function. In: Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 285–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauren Picada Emanuelli
    • 1
  • Danieli Brolo Martins
    • 1
  • Patrícia Wolkmer
    • 1
  • Alfredo Quites Antoniazzi
    • 2
  • Tatiana Emanuelli
    • 3
  • Agueda Castagna de Vargas
    • 4
  • Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Small Animal Clinic, Graduate Program in Veterinary MedicineFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Large Animal Clinic, Graduate Program in Veterinary MedicineFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Preventive Veterinary MedicineFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

Personalised recommendations