Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 161–165

Quinolone resistance among Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli of animal origin

Original Article

Abstract

Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are major pathogens of worldwide importance in the animal industry. Antimicrobial therapy is an important tool in reducing the enormous losses caused by these infectious agents, however, resistance to existing antimicrobials especially quinolones and fluoroquinolones is widespread and of concern to veterinarians. Iranian isolates of E. coli and S. enterica from different species of animals were examined for resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones. Thirty-five S. enterica isolates were recovered from different animal origins. Twenty-five E. coli strains were also isolated from poultry with colibacillosis. Eleven strains of E. coli were isolated from cloacal swabs from healthy chicken. All of the E. coli strains were identified by biochemical tests. Gene invA was detected in all of the Salmonella isolates. Serogroups of Salmonella were determined by colored rapid latex test. There was no relationship among serogroups of Salmonella and resistance to quinolones. In vitro antibiotic activities of four antibiotic substances against the isolates were determined by disk diffusion test. Forty percent of S. enterica and 96% of E. coli were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid. Fifty-six percent, 72%, and 36% of E. coli strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and norfloxacin, respectively. However, 11.42%, 22.85%, and 5.71% of Salmonella strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and norfloxacin, respectively.

Keywords

Escherichia coli Salmonella enterica Quinolone resistance 

References

  1. Asna SMZ, Haq JA, Rahman MM (2003) Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin caused treatment failure: a report from Bangladesh. Jpn J Infect Dis 56:32–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bazile S, Troung QC, Lafont JP, Gutmann L, Zhou XY, Osman M, Moreau NJ (1996) Resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:1504–1507Google Scholar
  3. Blanco JE, Blanco M, Mora A, Blanco J (1997) Prevalence of bacterial resistance to quinolones and other antimicrobials among avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from septicemic and healthy chickens in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 35:2184–2185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogaard AE, London N, Driessen C, Stobberingh EE (2001) Antibiotic resistance of faecal Escherichia coli in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J Antimicrob Chemother 47:763–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cloud SS, Rosenberger JK, Fries PA, Wilson RA, Odor EM (1985) In vitro and in vivo characterization of avian Escherichia coli. I. Serotypes, metabolic activity, and antibiotic sensitivity. Avian Dis 29:1084–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Corre CHL, Donnio PY, Perrin M, Travert MF, Avril JL (1999) Increasing incidence and comparison of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium isolates from humans and animals. J Clin Microbiol 37:266–269Google Scholar
  7. Giraud E, Leroy-Setrin S, Flaujac G, Cloeckaert A, Dho-Moulin M, Chaslus-Dancla E (2001) Characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli O78:K80 isolated from turkeys. J Antimicrob Chemother 47:341–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gooding CM, Choudary PV (1999) Comparison of different primers for rapid detection of Salmonella using the polymerase chain reaction. Mol Cell Probes 13:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hakanen AJ, Lindgren M, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Siitonen A, Kotilainen P (2005) New quinolone resistance phenomenon in Salmonella enterica: nalidixic acid-susceptible isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol 43:5775–5778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hummel R, Tschape H, Witte W (1996) Spread of plasmid-mediated nourscothricin resistance due to antibiotic use in animal husbandry. J Basic Microbiol 8:461–466Google Scholar
  11. Khan AA, Nawaz MS, Summage West C, Khan SA, Lin J (2005) Isolation and molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli from poultry litter. Poult Sci 84:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kolar M, Bardon J, Sauer P, Kesselova M, Cekanova L, Vagnerova I, Koukalova D, Hejnar P (2005) Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in poultry of middle Moravia, Czech Republic. Acta Vet Brno 74:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li XS, Wang GQ, Du XD, Cui BA, Zhang SM, Shen JZ (2007) Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular detection of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens. J Vet Sci 8:243–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Madhulika U, Harish BN, Parija SC (2004) Current pattern in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella typhi isolates in Pondicherry. Indian J Med Res 120:111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Martinez-Martinez L, Fernandez F, Perea J (1999) Relationship between haemolysis production and resistance to fluoroquinolones among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother 43:277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Molbak K, Gerner-Smidt P, Wegener HC (2002) Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis. Emerg Infect Dis 8:514–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Murray A, Coia JE, Mather H, Brown DJ (2005) Ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes in Scotland, 1993–2003. J Antimicrob Chemother 56:110–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ray P, Sharma J, Marak RSK, Garg RK (2006) Predictive efficacy of nalidixic acid resistance as a marker of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica var typhi. Indian J Med Res 124:105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Seputiene V, Povilonis J, Ruzauskas M, Virgailis M, Zlabys P, Suziedeliene E (2006) Quinolone resistance among Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli in Lithuania. Biologija 3:74–78Google Scholar
  20. Soto SM, Jimenez de Anta MT, Vila J (2006) Quinolones induce partial or total loss of pathogenicity islands in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by sos-dependent or independent pathways, respectively. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:649–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stevenson JE, Gay K, Barrett TJ, Medalla F, Chiller TM, Angulo FJ (2007) Increase in nalidixic acid resistance among non-typhi Salmonella enterica isolates in the United States from 1996 to 2003. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:195–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tokuzaki S, Takahashi M (2007) An outbreak of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis at a nursery school in Kitakyushu city, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 60:62–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Vila J, Simon K, Ruiz J, Horeajada JP, Velasco M, Barranco M, Moreno A, Mensa J (2002) Are quinolone-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli less virulent? J Infect Dis 186:1039–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. White DG, Piddock LJV, Maurer JJ, Zhao S, Ricci V, Thayer SG (2000) Characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance among veterinary isolates of avian Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2897–2899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yang H, Chen S, White DG, Zhao S, Mcdermott P, Walker R, Meng J (2004) Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens and swine in China. J Clin Microbiol 42:3483–3489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zahraei Salehi T, Farashi Bonab S (2006) Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens with colisepticemia in Tabriz province, Iran. Int J Poult Sci 5:677–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zahraei Salehi T, Mahzounieh M, Saeedzadeh A (2005) Detection of InvA gene in isolated Salmonella from broilers by PCR method. Int J Poult Sci 4:557–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrnaz Rad
    • 1
  • Mojhgan Kooshan
    • 1
  • Hooman Mesgarani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary MedicineFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations