, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 85–92 | Cite as

Basidiospores attach to the seed of Shorea leprosula in lowland tropical dipterocarp forest and form functional ectomycorrhiza on seed germination

  • Indriati Ramadhani
  • Nampiah Sukarno
  • Sri Listiyowati
Short Note


This research aimed to study the ectomycorrhiza formed by basidiospores attached to the outer surface of Shorea leprosula (Dipterocarpaceae) seed collected from a lowland tropical dipterocarp forest. Two groups of seeds were collected: control seeds collected from plastic net hanging 2 m above the ground and forest floor seeds collected on the forest floor. Before planting, 15 seeds from each group were observed for basidiospores attached to the seed. Ten of the 3-week-old S. leprosula seedlings of each group were individually grown in 1.5 kg of sterile zeolite for 8 months in a greenhouse. Pots were fertilized with MMN solution containing half the strength of phosphate. Fungal identity, ectomycorrhizal root tip colonization and anatomy, plant growth, and phosphate uptake were measured. The control seeds did not have basidiospores attached, whereas the forest floor seeds had 2 × 105 basidiospores of Tomentella. Bioassay test results indicate that the seedlings from the control seeds did not form ectomycorrhiza, whereas those seedlings from the forest floor seeds formed 3 morphotypes of ectomycorrhizae. Based on ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 rDNA region analyses, the 3 morphotypes belonged to Tomentella sp. HBT2, Tomentella sp. HBT4, and Scleroderma sp. HBS3. Root colonization percentage was above 70% for all three morphotypes. Root colonization in general increased plant growth and phosphate uptake. This is the first report of Tomentella basidiospores attached on the seed surface as a functional inoculum and of Tomentella ectomycorrhiza from dipterocarps lowland tropical forest.


Ectomycorrhiza Growth response P uptake Scleroderma sp. Shorea leprosula Tomentella spp. 



This study was supported by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Indonesia grant to Dr. Nampiah Sukarno. We thank the Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA), The Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia for permission to collect research samples from Haurbentes Experimental Forest, to Dr. Iman Hidayat, Indonesian Institute of Sciences for constructive suggestions on phylogenetic analysis, to Dr. Patrick O’Connor, Adelaide University, Australia for constructive criticism and English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest

Supplementary material

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesBogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesBogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia

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