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Mycorrhiza

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 387–397 | Cite as

Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings

  • Shamala SundramEmail author
  • Sariah Meon
  • Idris Abu Seman
  • Radziah Othman
Original Paper

Abstract

The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80 %, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

Keywords

Basal stem rot Ganoderma boninense Oil palm Biocontrol agent Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Endophytic bacteria 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for funding this project. The project was performed in collaboration with the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Supplementary material

572_2014_620_Fig2_ESM.jpg (801 kb)
Fig. 1S

Field site preparation. a Selected palms were cut approximately 60 cm above ground. b the cross section of a palm showing the progression of rotting distinguished by tissue discolouration (arrow). c Each felled trunk was moved away from the experimental site and chipped to allow degradation. d The area around each stump was cleared for planting bait seedlings pre-inoculated with the respective biocontrol treatments; arrow indicates the sporophores of Ganoderma (JPEG 801 kb)

572_2014_620_Fig3_ESM.jpg (1009 kb)
Fig. 1S

Field site preparation. a Selected palms were cut approximately 60 cm above ground. b the cross section of a palm showing the progression of rotting distinguished by tissue discolouration (arrow). c Each felled trunk was moved away from the experimental site and chipped to allow degradation. d The area around each stump was cleared for planting bait seedlings pre-inoculated with the respective biocontrol treatments; arrow indicates the sporophores of Ganoderma (JPEG 801 kb)

572_2014_620_Fig4_ESM.jpg (3.9 mb)
Fig. 1S

Field site preparation. a Selected palms were cut approximately 60 cm above ground. b the cross section of a palm showing the progression of rotting distinguished by tissue discolouration (arrow). c Each felled trunk was moved away from the experimental site and chipped to allow degradation. d The area around each stump was cleared for planting bait seedlings pre-inoculated with the respective biocontrol treatments; arrow indicates the sporophores of Ganoderma (JPEG 801 kb)

572_2014_620_Fig5_ESM.jpg (973 kb)
Fig. 1S

Field site preparation. a Selected palms were cut approximately 60 cm above ground. b the cross section of a palm showing the progression of rotting distinguished by tissue discolouration (arrow). c Each felled trunk was moved away from the experimental site and chipped to allow degradation. d The area around each stump was cleared for planting bait seedlings pre-inoculated with the respective biocontrol treatments; arrow indicates the sporophores of Ganoderma (JPEG 801 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamala Sundram
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sariah Meon
    • 2
  • Idris Abu Seman
    • 1
  • Radziah Othman
    • 2
  1. 1.Ganoderma and Diseases Research of Oil Palm UnitMalaysian Palm Oil BoardKajangMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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