, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 581–593 | Cite as

Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal root tip communities in consideration of a post-agricultural soil nutrient gradient legacy

  • Carrie AndrewEmail author
  • Erik A. Lilleskov
Original Paper


Despite the critical role of EMF in nutrient and carbon (C) dynamics, combined effects of global atmospheric pollutants on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are unclear. Here, we present research on EMF root-level community responses to elevated CO2 and O3. We discovered that belowground EMF community richness and similarity were both negatively affected by CO2 and O3, but the effects of CO2 and O3 on EMF communities were contingent on a site soil pH and cation availability gradient. These results contrast with our previous work showing a strong direct effect of CO2 and O3 on sporocarp community dynamics and production. We discuss the possible role of carbon demand and allocation by EMF taxa in the discrepancy of these results. EMF communities were structured by a legacy of spatially defined soil properties, changing atmospheric chemistry and temporal dynamics. It is therefore necessary to understand global change impacts across multiple environmental gradients and spatiotemporal scales.


CO2 Carbon demand Ectomycorrhizal fungi O3 Legacies pH Root tips 



The authors thank Peter Avis, Rosanne Healy, Leho Tedersoo, and Bryant Scharenbroch for their nomenclatural assistance, advice, and/or suggestions. We appreciated the molecular work aided by Jessica Bibbee and Andy Quinn, as well as field and lab help from Joy Andrew, Robert Andrew, and Lynette Potvin. Funding was provided by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, two Graduate Research Grants awarded to C. Andrew from the Ecosystem Science Center (Michigan Technological University), and a Michigan Technological University Graduate School Finishing Fellowship Grant. We thank the US Department of Energy and the FACE Steering Committee for implementing and maintaining the Aspen FACE site for the duration of this study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Resources and Environmental SciencesMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.Section for Genetics and Evolutionary Biology (EVOGENE)University of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.US Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Forestry Sciences LaboratoryHoughtonUSA

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