, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 27–33

The differential behavior of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in interaction with Astragalus sinicus L. under salt stress

  • Jin Peng
  • Yan Li
  • Ping Shi
  • Xiuhua Chen
  • Hui Lin
  • Bin Zhao
Original Paper


Three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus claroideum, and Glomus intraradices) were compared for their root colonizing ability and activity in the root of Astragalus sinicus L. under salt-stressed soil conditions. Mycorrhizal formation, activity of fungal succinate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as plant biomass, were evaluated after 7 weeks of plant growth. Increasing the concentration of NaCl in soil generally decreased the dry weight of shoots and roots. Inoculation with AM fungi significantly alleviated inhibitory effect of salt stress. G. intraradices was the most efficient AM fungus compared with the other two fungi in terms of root colonization and enzyme activity. Nested PCR revealed that in root system of plants inoculated with a mix of the three AM fungi and grown under salt stress, the majority of mycorrhizal root fragments were colonized by one or two AM fungi, and some roots were colonized by all the three. Compared to inoculation alone, the frequency of G. mosseae in roots increased in the presence of the other two fungal species and highest level of NaCl, suggesting a synergistic interaction between these fungi under salt stress.


Alkaline phosphatase Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Nested PCR Salt stress Succinate dehydrogenase 



Alkaline phosphatase


Arbuscular mycorrhizal


Large subunit ribosomal DNA


Polymerase chain reaction


Succinate dehydrogenase


  1. Alkan N, Gadkar V, Yarden O, Kapulnik Y (2006) Analysis of quantitative interactions between two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices, by real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4192–4199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Karaki GN (2000) Growth and mineral acquisition by mycorrhizal tomato grown under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 10:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Karaki GN, Hammad R, Rusan M (2001) Response of two tomato cultivars differing in salt tolerance to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 11:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen XH, Zhao B (2007) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated uptake of lanthanum in Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.). Chemosphere 68:1548–1555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho K, Toler H, Lee J, Ownley B, Stutz JC, Moore JL, Augé RM (2006) Mycorrhizal symbiosis and response of sorghum plants to combined drought and salinity stresses. J Plant Physiol 163:517–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Daei G, Ardekani MR, Rejali F, Teimuri S, Miransari M (2009) Alleviation of salinity stress on wheat yield, yield components, and nutrient uptake using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. J Plant Physiol 166:617–625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong XL, Zhao B (2006) Nested multiplex PCR—a feasible technique to study partial community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field-growing plant root. Sci China Ser C-Life Sci 49:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Atrach F, Vierheilig H, Ocampo JA (1989) Influence of non-host plants on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of host plants and on spore germination. Soil Biol Biochem 21:161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghazi N, Al-Karaki (2000) Growth of mycorrhizal tomato and mineral acquisition under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 10:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gollotte A, van Tuinen D, Atkinson D (2004) Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising roots of the grass species Agrostis capillaris and Lolium perenne in a field experiment. Mycorrhiza 14:111–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. He ZQ, He CX, Zhang ZB, Zou ZR, Wang HS (2007) Changes of antioxidative enzymes and cell membrane osmosis in tomato colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizae under NaCl stress. Colloids Surf B 59:128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hempel S, Renker C, Buscot F (2007) Differences in the species composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in spore, root and soil communities in a grassland ecosystem. Environ Microbiol 9(8):1930–1938CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Calif Agric Exp Stn Cir 347:32–37Google Scholar
  14. Jacquot E, van Tuinen D, Gianinazzi S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (2000) Monitoring species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants and in soil by nested PCR: application to the study of the impact of sewage sludge. Plant Soil 226:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang XY, Huang Y (2003) Mechanism of contribution of mycorrhizal fungi to plant saline-alkali tolerance. Ecol Environ 12:353–356Google Scholar
  16. Kjøller R, Rosendahl S (2000) Detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales) in roots by nested PCR SSCP (single stranded conformation polymorphism). Plant Soil 226:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koide RT (2000) Functional complementarity in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytol 147:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Y, Peng J, Shi P, Zhao B (2009) The effect of Cd on mycorrhizal development and enzyme activity of Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices in Astragalus sinicus L. Chemosphere 75:894–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Naidoo G, Naidoo Y (2001) Effects of salinity and nitrogen on growth, ion relations and proline accumulation in Triglochinbulbosa. Wetlands Ecol Manage 9:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Niu DL, Wang QJ (2002) Research progress on saline—alkali field control. Chinese J Soil Sci 33:449–455 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Porras-Soriano A, Soriano-Martin ML, Porras-Piedra A, Azcón R (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions. J Plant Physiol 166:1350–1359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Porter WM (1979) The “Most Probable Number” method for enumerating infective propagules of VAM fungi in soil. Aust J Soil Res 17:515–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reddy SR, Pindi PK, Reddy SM (2005) Molecular methods for research on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in India: problems and prospects. Curr Sci 89:1699–1709Google Scholar
  24. Renker C, Heinrichs J, Kaldorf M, Buscot F (2003) Combining nested PCR and restriction digest of the internal transcribed spacer region to characterize arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on roots from the field. Mycorrhiza 13:191–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosendahl S, Stukenbrock EH (2004) Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rDNA sequences. Mol Ecol 13:3179–3186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Stukenbrock EH, Rosendahl S (2005) Distribution of dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi among five plant species in undisturbed vegetation of a coastal grassland. Mycorrhiza 15:497–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Tisserant B, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S, Gollotte A (1993) In planta histochemical staining of fungal alkaline phosphatase activity for analysis of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal infections. Mycol Res 97:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Triantafilis J, Odeh IOA, McBratney AB (2001) Five geostatistical models to predict soil salinity from electromagnetic induction data across irrigated cotton. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:869–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trouvelot A, Kough J, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (1986) Evaluation of VAM infection levels in root systems. Research for estimation methods having a functional significance. In: Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (eds) Physiological and Genetical Aspects of Mycorrhizae. INRA, Paris, pp 217–221Google Scholar
  30. van Tuinen D, Jacquot E, Zhao B, Gollotte A, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (1998) Characterization of root colonization profiles by a microcosm community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using 25S rDNA-targeted nested PCR. Mol Ecol 7:879–887CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhao B, Trouvelot A, Gianinazzi S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (1997) Influence of two legume species on hyphal production and activity of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 7:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Peng
    • 1
  • Yan Li
    • 1
  • Ping Shi
    • 1
  • Xiuhua Chen
    • 2
  • Hui Lin
    • 1
  • Bin Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural MicrobiologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture & Environment, Ministry of AgricultureHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations