Advertisement

Mycorrhiza

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 245–250 | Cite as

Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

  • O. Mühlmann
  • F. Göbl
Original Paper

Abstract

The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

Keywords

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Picea abies Lactarius deterrimus Arbutoid mycorrhiza Ectomycorrhiza 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Ursula Peintner for reading and discussing this manuscript. This work was supported by a grant from the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management of Austria (project number: 56.810/10-VA2b/2000).

References

  1. Acsai J, Largent DL (1983a) Fungi associated with Arbutus menziesii and Arctostaphylos manzanita, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi in central and northern California. Mycologia 75:544–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acsai J, Largent DL (1983b) Mycorrhizae of Arbutus menziesii Pursh and Arctostaphylos manzanita Parry in northern California. Mycotaxon 16:519–536Google Scholar
  3. Agerer R (1986) Studies on ectomycorrhizae III. Mycorrhizae formed by four species in the genera Lactarius and Russula on spruce. Mycotaxon 27:1–59Google Scholar
  4. Agerer R (1987–2002) Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn-Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  5. Agerer R (1991) Characterization of ectomycorrhiza. In: Norris JR, Read DJ, Varma AK (eds) Methods in Microbiology, vol 23. Academic, London pp 25–73Google Scholar
  6. Engel H, Friedrichsen I (1971) Aspekte der Groβpilze um Mitte September im Nadelwaldgürtel der nördlichen Kalkalpen in Tirol. 1. Die Artenzahl und ihre Veränderungen. Zeitschr F Pilzkunde 37:61–73Google Scholar
  7. Göbl F, Ladurner H (2000) Mykorrhizen und Pilze der Hochlagenaufforstung Haggen. Mitteilung der forstlichen Bundesversuchsanstalt WienGoogle Scholar
  8. Hagerman SM, Sakakibara SM, Durall DM (2001) The potential for woody understory plants to provide refuge for ectomycorrhizal inoculum at an interior Douglas-fir forest after clear-cut logging. Can J For Res 31:711–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heilmann-Clausen J, Verbeken A, Vesterholt J (1998) The genus Lactarius. The Danish Mycological Society, OddenseGoogle Scholar
  10. Horton TR, Bruns TD, Parker VT (1999) Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arctostaphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment. Can J Bot 77:93–102Google Scholar
  11. Ingleby K, Mason PA, Last FT, Flemming LV (1990) Identification of ectomycorrhizas. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Mejstrik VK, Hadac E (1975) Mycorrhizas of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Pedobiologia 15:336–342Google Scholar
  13. Molina R, Trappe JM (1982) Lack of mycorrhizal specificity by the ericaceous hosts Arbutus menziesii and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. New Phytol 90:495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Molina R, Smith JE, McKay D, Melville LH (1997) Biology of the ectomycorrhizal genus, Rhizopogon III. Influence of co-cultured conifer species on mycorrhizal specificity with the arbutoid hosts Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Arbutus menziesii. New Phytol 137:519–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moser M (1956) Die Bedeutung der Mykorrhiza für Aufforstungen in Hochlagen. Forstw Cbl 75:8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moser M (1983) Die Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze. Kleine Kryptogamenflora Band IIb/2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  17. Mühlmann O (2004) Pilze und Mykorrhizen von Arctostaphylos uva-ursi und ihre Bedeutung für die Wiederaufforstung in subalpinen Hochlagen in den Tiroler Alpen. Ph.D. thesis, Universität Innsbruck, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  18. Münzenberger B, Metzler B, Kottke I, Oberwinkler F (1986) Morphologische und anatomische Charakterisierung der Mykorrhiza Lactarius deterrimusPicea abies in vitro. Z Mykol 52:407–422Google Scholar
  19. Münzenberger B, Kottke I, Oberwinkler F (1992) Ultrastructural investigations of Arbutus unedoLaccaria amethystea mycorrhiza synthesized in vitro. Trees 7:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Neuwinger I (1972) Standortsuntersuchungen am Sonnberg im Sellrainer Obertal, Tirol. Mitteilung der Forstlichen Bundesversuchsanstalt Wien 96:177–207Google Scholar
  21. Peintner U (1995) Mykosoziologische Untersuchung des Projektgebietes Achenkirch unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Schadstoffeinträgen. Ph.D. thesis, University of Innsbruck, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  22. Rücker T, Wittmann H, Peer T (1990) Mykozoenologische Untersuchungen in Fichtenwäldern im Bundesland Salzburg, Österreich. Mycol Helv 4:75–98Google Scholar
  23. Scheidegger C, Brunner I (1995) Electron microscopy of ectomycorrhiza: methods, applications, findings. In: Varma A, Hock B (eds) Mycorrhiza. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 205–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schiechtl (1970) Zur Frage der Wiederaufforstung von Sonnenhängen in den Hochlagen der Inneralpen. Allg Forstztg 81:312–314Google Scholar
  25. Simard SW, Perry DA, Jones MD, Myrold DD, Durall DM, Molina R (1997) Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 338:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Watling R (2002) Mycota of some British shrub-plant communities. Feddes Repert 113:61–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zak B (1976) Pure culture synthesis of bearberry mycorrhizae. Can J Bot 54:1297–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of MicrobiologyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Schneeburggasse 43aInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations