Mycorrhiza

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 299–363 | Cite as

Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants

Review

Abstract

A survey of 659 papers mostly published since 1987 was conducted to compile a checklist of mycorrhizal occurrence among 3,617 species (263 families) of land plants. A plant phylogeny was then used to map the mycorrhizal information to examine evolutionary patterns. Several findings from this survey enhance our understanding of the roles of mycorrhizas in the origin and subsequent diversification of land plants. First, 80 and 92% of surveyed land plant species and families are mycorrhizal. Second, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is the predominant and ancestral type of mycorrhiza in land plants. Its occurrence in a vast majority of land plants and early-diverging lineages of liverworts suggests that the origin of AM probably coincided with the origin of land plants. Third, ectomycorrhiza (ECM) and its derived types independently evolved from AM many times through parallel evolution. Coevolution between plant and fungal partners in ECM and its derived types has probably contributed to diversification of both plant hosts and fungal symbionts. Fourth, mycoheterotrophy and loss of the mycorrhizal condition also evolved many times independently in land plants through parallel evolution.

Keywords

Mycorrhizas Land plants Fungi Parallel evolution 

Introduction

Mycorrhizas, dual organs of absorption formed when symbiotic fungi inhabit healthy tissues of most terrestrial plants (Trappe 1996), have widespread occurrence among land plants and are increasingly believed to have played an important role in the successful colonization of the land by plants (Pirozynski and Malloch 1975; Malloch et al. 1980; Harley and Harley 1987; Trappe 1987; Selosse and Le Tacon 1998; Read et al. 2000; Brundrett 2002). Since Nägeli first described them in 1842 (see Koide and Mosse 2004), only a few major surveys have been conducted on their phylogenetic distribution in various groups of land plants either by retrieving information from literature or through direct observation (Trappe 1987; Harley and Harley 1987; Newman and Reddell 1987). Trappe (1987) gathered information on the presence and absence of mycorrhizas in 6,507 species of angiosperms investigated in previous studies and mapped the phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizas using the classification system by Cronquist (1981). He found that 82% of the species were mycorrhizal. From the occurrence of various types of mycorrhizas in different subclasses and orders of angiosperms, he further inferred that the ancestral type was glomeromycetous (the original word “zygomycotous” is not used because fungi forming this type of mycorrhiza are now placed in the new phylum Glomeromycota, see Schussler et al. 2001) mycorrhiza, and ascomycetous and basidiomycetous mycorrhizas belong to the derived types, and that evolution of mycorrhizas in plants had progressed from obligate to facultative mycorrhizas and ultimately to nonmycorrhizas. In the same year, Harley and Harley (1987) published a checklist of the mycorrhizal status of 144 families of vascular plants in the British flora, documenting various types of mycorrhizas in an entire flora for the first time. More recently, Gemma et al. (1992) and Zhao (2000) investigated the mycorrhizal status of 89 and 256 species of pteridophytes in Hawaii and Yunnan, China, respectively. They found that the percentages of mycorrhizal species in pteridophytes (74 and 33%, respectively) were lower than in angiosperms as reported by Trappe (1987). Whether bryophytes have mycorrhizas or not is still a debatable issue, but many liverworts and hornworts have fungal associations (Read et al. 2000). In two surveys of British liverworts, Pocock and Duckett (1985) and Duckett et al. (1991) reported that among the 206 and 284 examined species, respectively, 16% contained fungal endophytes in their rhizoids or thalli.

Mycorrhizal research has advanced at an astonishing pace over the last two decades due to a recent surge of interest in the subject by botanists, mycologists, and ecologists. A large number of new reports on mycorrhizal occurrence in land plants, especially in pteridophytes and liverworts, have been published since the surveys by Trappe (1987) and Harley and Harley (1987). During the same period, our understanding of the land plant phylogeny was greatly improved through major efforts by molecular systematists. An explicit phylogenetic classification system of angiosperms is now available (Stevens 2004), and a nonflowering land plant phylogeny will be published soon (Qiu et al. unpublished data). Hence, reviewing mycorrhizal occurrence in land plants and mapping this information onto the newly available plant phylogeny will update our knowledge on mycorrhizal abundance in plants, facilitate examination of the origin and evolutionary pattern of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plants, and enhance our understanding of this important biological interaction and its impact on evolution of both plants and fungi. Areas that require further study, especially the taxa that occupy critical positions in the land plant phylogeny and for which mycorrhizal information is still lacking, can also be identified through these efforts.

Materials and methods

In this review, we compiled information on mycorrhizal occurrence in land plants mostly from the papers published since 1987, as those published before were reviewed by Trappe (1987) and Harley and Harley (1987). First, a library consisting of 4,193 mycorrhiza-related references was established. After browsing the abstracts, 961 references that provided information on mycorrhizal occurrence in plant species from all the continents and all major habitats were selected. Due to time limitation and unavailability of some literature, 659 of these 961 references are reviewed here. Data on mycorrhizal status of each plant species were extracted from these references, based on whether the species was mycorrhizal or not, and if so, what type. An updated mycorrhizal classification system proposed by Smith and Read (1997) was used here. Seven types of mycorrhizas were all recognized (see the footnote b in Table 1), along with nonmycorrhiza and mycoheterotrophy. A species is considered to be obligately mycorrhizal if it is always found to form mycorrhiza, while a species is considered to be facultatively mycorrhizal if it is reported to form mycorrhizas in one habitat but not in another. If a plant species can form different kinds of mycorrhizas simultaneously or in different habitats, it is recorded as forming all relevant mycorrhizal types. All the data are presented in Table 1, which groups all the examined plant species into families that are further arranged according to the land plant phylogeny used in this study (Stevens 2004; Qiu et al. unpublished). The family definition for vascular plants generally follows Mabberley (1987), but for a small number of newly recognized families, the nomenclature of Stevens (2004) is used. For liverworts, the system by Grolle (1983) for family definition is followed. The data from Harley and Harley (1987), containing 1,101 species, were added to this table, but those of Trappe (1987) were not as they were not published. The information in Table 1 was then mapped onto a land plant phylogeny drawn according to a multigene analysis of nonflowering land plants (Qiu et al. unpublished) and the angiosperm classification system proposed by Stevens (2004). Family was used as the unit of reconstruction (i.e., terminal node) in this phylogeny. For each family, the percentages of obligate, facultative, and nonmycorrhizal species, and the percentage of each type of mycorrhizas among all mycorrhizal species were calculated and plotted onto the land plant phylogeny.
Table 1

An updated check-list of mycorrhizal occurrence among land plants

Examined speciesa

Mycorrhizal statusb,c

References

BRYOPHYTES

 Haplomitriaceae

  Haplomitrium gibbsiae

AM-like

107

  Haplomitrium ovalifolium

AM-like

107

 Blasiaceae

  Blasia pusilla

None

182, 328

 Lunulariaceae

  Lunularia cruciata

Fungal association (G)

182

 Marchantiaceae

  Marchantia foliacea

AM-like

505

  Marchantia polymorpha

Fungal association (G)

182

 Aytoniaceae

  Asterella wilmsii

AM-like

345

 Conocephalaceae

  Conocephalum conicum

AM-like

346

Fungal association (G)

182

 Ricciaceae

  Riccia fluitans

None

182

 Metzgeriaceae

  Apometzgeria pubescens

None

466

  Metzgeria conjugata

None

466

  Metzgeria fruticulosa

None

466

  Metzgeria furcata

None

466

  Metzgeria leptoneura

None

466

  Metzgeria temperata

None

466

 Aneuraceae

  Aneura pinguis

ORM-like (B)

347

  Cryptothallus mirabilis

Fungal association

466

ORM-like (B)

347

Mycoheterotrophy (via ECM)

77, 483

  Riccardia latifrons

None

466

  Riccardia multifida

None

466

  Riccardia palmate

None

466

 Pelliaceae

  Pellia endiviifolia

AM-like

598

  Pellia epiphylla

Fungal association (G)

182

  Pellia fabbroniana

AM-like

483

 Codoniaceae

  Fossombronia pusilla

Fungal association (G)

182

  Fossombronia wondraczekii

Fungal association

328

 Radulaceae

  Radula aquilegia

None

466

  Radula complanata

None

466

  Radula lindbergiana

None

466

 Porellaceae

  Porella arboris-vitae

None

466

  Porella cordaeana

None

466

  Porella obtusata

None

466

  Porella pinnata

None

466

  Porella platyphylla

None

466

 Jubulaceae

  Frullania dilatata

None

466

  Frullania fragilifolia

None

466

  Frullania microphylla

None

466

  Frullania tamarisci

None

466

  Frullania teneriffae

None

466

  Jubula hutchinsiae

None

466

 Lejeuneaceae

  Aphanolejeunea microscopica

None

466

  Cololejeunea calcarea

None

466

  Cololejeunea minutissima

None

466

  Colura calyptrifolia

None

466

  Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia

None

466

  Harpalejeunea ovata

None

466

  Lejeunea cavifolia

None

466

  Lejeunea lamacerina

None

466

  Lejeunea patens

None

466

  Lejeunea ulicina

None

466

  Marchesinia mackaii

None

466

 Pseudolepicoleaceae

  Blepharostoma trichophyllum

None

466

Fungal association

328

 Herbertaceae

  Herbertus borealis

None

466

 Plagiochilaceae

  Pedinophyllum interruptum

None

466

  Plagiochila asplenioides

None

466

  Plagiochila porelloides

None

466

  Plagiochila punctata

Fungal association

466

  Plagiochila spinulosa

None

466

 Arnelliaceae

  Southbya nigrella

Fungal association (B)

182

 Geocalycaceae

  Chiloscyphus pallescens

None

466

  Chiloscyphus polyanthus

None

466

  Geocalyx graveolens

Fungal association

466

  Harpanthus flotovianus

None

466

  Harpanthus scutatus

Fungal association

466

  Leptoscyphus cuneifolius

None

466

  Lophocolea bidentata

None

466

  Lophocolea cuspidate

None

466

  Lophocolea heterophylla

None

182, 466

Fungal association

328

  Saccogyna viticulosa

Fungal association

466

 Lepidoziaceae

  Bazzania flaccida

None

328

  Bazzania tricrenata

None

466

  Bazzania trilobata

None

328, 466

  Kurzia pauciflora

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182, 328

  Kurzia sylvatica

Fungal association

466

  Kurzia trichoclados

Fungal association

466

  Lepidozia reptans

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182, 328

  Telaranea murphyae

Fungal association

466

  Telaranea nematodes

Fungal association

466

 Scapaniaceae

  Diplophyllum albicans

None

182, 466

Fungal association

328

  Diplophyllum obtusifolium

Fungal association

328

  Douinia ovata

None

466

  Scapania calcicola

None

466

  Scapania cuspiduligera

None

466

  Scapania gracilis

None

466

  Scapania scandica

None

466

  Scapania umbrosa

None

466

 Cephaloziellaceae

  Cephaloziella baumgartneri

None

466

  Cephaloziella divaricata

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182, 328

  Cephaloziella exiliflora

Fungal association (A)

118

  Cephaloziella hampeana

Fungal association

466

  Cephaloziella massalongi

None

466

  Cephaloziella rubella

Fungal association

466

 Cephaloziaceae

  Cephalozia bicuspidate

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182, 328

  Cephalozia catenulate

None

466

Fungal association

328

  Cephalozia connivens

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182

  Cephalozia leucantha

Fungal association

466

  Cephalozia loitlesbergeri

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182

  Cephalozia lunulifolia

Fungal association

328, 466

  Cephalozia macrostachya

Fungal association

466

  Cephalozia pleniceps

Fungal association

466

  Cladopodiella fluitans

None

466

  Cladopodiella francisci

Fungal association

466

  Nowellia curvifolia

Fungal association (A)

182, 328, 466

  Odontoschisma denudatum

None

466

Fungal association (A)

182

  Odontoschisma elongatum

None

466

  Odontoschisma sphagni

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182

 Calypogeiaceae

  Calypogeia arguta

Fungal association

466

  Calypogeia azurea

Fungal association (A, B)

328

  Calypogeia fissa

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182

  Calypogeia integristipula

Fungal association

328

  Calypogeia muellerana

Fungal association

466

Fungal association (A)

182

Fungal association (A, B)

328

  Calypogeia neesiana

Fungal association

328, 466

  Calypogeia sphagnicola

Fungal association

466

  Calypogeia trichomanis

Fungal association

466

 Jungermanniaceae

  Anastrophyllum minutum

Fungal association

328

  Barbilophozia barbata

Fungal association (A, B)

328

  Barbilophozia hatcheri

None

466

  Jamesoniella autumnalis

Fungal association

466

  Jamesoniella undulifolia

None

466

  Jungermannia atrovirens

None

466

  Jungermannia borealis

None

466

  Jungermannia exsertifolia

None

466

  Jungermannia gracillima

None

182, 466

  Jungermannia obovata

None

466

  Jungermannia pumila

None

466

  Leiocolea turbinata

None

466

  Lophozia incisa

Fungal association (B)

328

  Lophozia sudetica

Fungal association (B)

328

  Lophozia ventricosa

Fungal association (B)

182

  Mylia anomala

Fungal association

328, 466

  Mylia taylorii

Fungal association

328

  Nardia breidleri

Fungal association

466

  Nardia scalaris

Fungal association (B)

182, 328

  Sphenolobus helleranus

None

466

  Sphenolobus minutus

None

466

 Gymnomitriaceae

  Gymnomitrion concinnatum

None

466

  Gymnomitrion crenulatum

None

466

  Gymnomitrion obtusum

None

466

  Marsupella adusta

None

466

  Marsupella alpina

None

466

  Marsupella emarginata

None

466

Fungal association

328

  Marsupella stableri

None

466

 Anthocerotaceae

  Anthoceros punctatus

AM-like

525

  Phaeoceros laevis

AM-like

344

PTERIDOPHYTES

 Lycopodiaceae

  Diphasiastrum alpinum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Diphasiastrum complanatum

NM

654

  Diphasiastrum issleri

AM

260, 261

  Huperzia australiana

AM

342

  Huperzia phyllantha

AM

226

  Huperzia selago

AM+NM

260, 261

  Huperzia serrata f. longipetiolata

NM

654

  Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides

NM

654

  Lycopodiella inundata

AM

212

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lycopodium alpinum

NM

594

  Lycopodium annotinum

AM

260, 261

  Lycopodium cernuum

AM

181, 226

  Lycopodium clavatum

AM

521, 594

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lycopodium japonicum

AM

654

  Lycopodium selago

NM

594

  Palhinhaea cernua

NM

654

  Phlegmariurus henryi

NM

654

 Isoetaceae

  Isoetes echinospora

NM

260, 261

  Isoetes histrix

NM

260, 261

  Isoetes lacustris

NM

260, 261

 Selaginellaceae

  Selaginella arbuscula

AM

226

  Selaginella biformis

AM

654

  Selaginella chrysocaulos

NM

654

  Selaginella davidii

AM

653, 654

  Selaginella delicatula

AM

654

  Selaginella frondosa

AM

654

  Selaginella helferi

NM

654

  Selaginella involvens

AM

654

  Selaginella kraussiana

AM+NM

260, 261

  Selaginella mairei

AM

343

  Selaginella moellendorfii

AM

653

  Selaginella monospora

NM

654

  Selaginella picta

AM

654

  Selaginella pulvinata

AM

343, 654

  Selaginella remotifolia

AM

654

  Selaginella sanguinolenta

AM

654

  Selaginella selaginoides

AM

260, 261

 Equisetaceae

  Equisetum arvense

NM

307, 594, 260, 261

AM

599

  Equisetum debile

NM

654

  Equisetum diffusum

AM

343

NM

654

  Equisetum fluviatile

NM

260, 261

  Equisetum hyemale

AM

653, 260, 261

  Equisetum palustre

NM

260, 261

  Equisetum pratense

NM

260, 261

  Equisetum ramosissimum

NM

368, 260, 261

AM

653

  Equisetum sylvaticum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Equisetum telmateia

AM

260, 261

  Equisetum × trachydon

AM

260, 261

  Equisetum variegatum

NM

594

AM

260, 261

 Marattiaceae

  Angiopteris caudatiformis

AM

654, 655

  Angiopteris evecta

AM

226

  Angiopteris hokouensis

AM

654

  Angiopteris wangii

AM

654

  Angiopteris yunnanensis

AM

654

  Archangiopteris bipinnata

AM

654

  Archangiopteris henryi

AM

654

  Archangiopteris hokouensis

AM

654

  Archangiopteris subrotundata

AM

654

  Calathea sp.

AM

510

  Christensenia assamica

AM

654

  Ctenanthe sp.

AM

510

  Ischnosiphon gracilis

AM

510

  Marattia douglasii

NM

226

  Monotagma plurispicatum

AM

510

  Saranthe compositae

NM

510

  Stromanthe porteana

AM

510

 Psilotaceae

  Psilotum complanatum

NM

226

  Psilotum nudum

AM

226

  Psilotum sp.

AM

483

 Ophioglossaceae

  Botrychium lanuginosum

AM

653

  Botrychium lunaria

AM

194, 260, 261

  Botrychium ternatum

AM

653

  Botrychium virginianum

AM

329

  Ophioglossum concinnum

AM

226

  Ophioglossum lusitanicum

AM

260, 261

  Ophioglossum pendulum

AM

226

  Ophioglossum petiolatum

AM

654

NM

226

  Ophioglossum reticulatum

AM

522, 654

  Ophioglossum themale

AM

654

  Ophioglossum vulgatum

AM

653, 260, 261

 Osmundaceae

  Osmunda cinnamomea

AM

140

  Osmunda japonica

AM

653, 654

  Osmunda regalis

AM+NM

260, 261

 Hymenophyllaceae

  Crepidomanes latealatum

NM

654

  Hymenophyllum tunbrigense

M (endo)

260, 261

  Hymenophyllum wilsonii

M (endo)

260, 261

  Mecodium badium

NM

654

  Mecodium blumeanum

NM

654

  Mecodium recurvum

AM

226

  Sphaerocionium lanceolatum

AM

226

  Trichomanes auriculatum

NM

654

  Trichomanes speciosum

NM

260, 261

  Vandenboscia cyrtotheca

NM

226

  Vandenboscia davalliodes

NM

226

 Gleicheniaceae

  Dicranopteris dichotoma

AM

653

  Dicranopteris gigantea

NM

654

  Dicranopteris linearis

AM

226

  Dicranopteris pedata

NM

654

  Dicranopteris splendida

NM

654

  Diplopterygium glaucoides

NM

654

  Diplopterygium glaucum

NM

654

  Diplopterygium pinnatum

AM

226

  Sticherus laevigatus

NM

654

  Sticherus owhyhensis

AM

226

 Schizaeaceae

  Anemia phyllitidis

AM

31

  Lygodium conforme

AM

654

  Lygodium japonicum

AM

653

NM

654

  Schizaea robusta

AM

226

 Marsileaceae

  Pilularia globulifera

AM+NM

260, 261

 Azollaceae

  Azolla filiculoides

NM

226, 260, 261

 Plagiogyriaceae

  Plagiogyria distinctissima

AM

654

 Cyatheaceae

  Alsophila constularis

NM

654

  Alsophila spinulosa

AM

654

  Cyathea cooperi

AM

226

  Gymnosphaera gigantea

NM

654

  Gymnosphaera podophylla

NM

654

  Sphaeropteris brunoniana

NM

654

 Dicksoniaceae

  Cibotium barometze

NM

654

  Cibotium chamissoi

AM

226

  Cibotium glaucum

AM

226

  Cibotium st.-johnii

AM

226

 Pteridaceae

  Doryopteris decipiens

AM

226

  Doryopteris decora

AM

226

  Histiopteris incisa

AM

654

  Pellaea mairei

AM

654

  Pellaea ternifolia

AM

226

  Pteridium aquilinum

AM

653

  Pteridium revolutum

NM

654

  Pteris aspericaulis

AM

653

  Pteris aspericaulis var. tricolor

NM

654

  Pteris cretica

AM

226

  Pteris cretica var. laeta

NM

654

  Pteris cretica var. nervosa

NM

654

  Pteris dissitifolia

NM

654

  Pteris ensiformis

NM

654

  Pteris esquirolii

NM

654

  Pteris excelsa

AM

226

NM

654

  Pteris irregularis

AM

226

  Pteris linearis

NM

654

  Pteris semipinnata

NM

654

  Pteris setulosocostulata

AM

654

  Pteris venusta

AM

655

  Pteris vittata

AM

226, 653

NM

654

  Pteris wangiana

NM

654

 Vittariaceae

  Antrophyrum henryi

NM

654

  Vittaria elongata

AM

226

  Vittaria flexuosa

NM

654

 Adiantaceae

  Adiantum bonatianum

AM

654

  Adiantum capillus-veneris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Adiantum edgewothii

AM

654

  Adiantum flabellulatum

AM

654

  Adiantum malesianum

NM

654

  Adiantum philipense

AM

343

NM

654

  Aleuritopteris albomarginatata

AM

654

  Aleuritopteris argentea

AM

654

  Aleuritopteris duclouxii

NM

654

  Aleuritopteris pseudofarinosa

NM

654

  Anogramma leptophylla

NM

260, 261

  Cheilosoria hancockii

AM

654

  Coniogramme intermedia

AM

654

  Coniogramme rosthorni

NM

654

  Coniogramme simillima

AM

654

  Cryptogramma crispa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Gymnopteris bipinnata var. auriculata

NM

654

  Gymnopteris vestita

AM

654

  Leptolepidium subvillosum

NM

654

  Onychium angustifrons

NM

654

  Onychium contigium

AM

654

  Onychium japonicum var. lucidum

NM

654

  Onychium lucidum

AM

654

  Sinopteris grevilleoides

NM

654

 Dennstaedtiaceae

  Dennstaedtia melanostipes

AM

654

  Dennstaedtia scabra

AM

654

  Hypolepis punctata

NM

654

  Lindsaea cultrata

AM

653

  Lindsaea ensifolia

NM

654

  Lindsaea javanensis

NM

654

  Lindsaea odorata

NM

654

  Lindsaea orbiculata

AM

654

  Microlepia hookeriana

AM

654

  Microlepia marginata

AM

654

  Microlepia marginata var. calvescens

AM

654

  Microlepia pilosissima

AM

654

  Microlepia platyphylla

NM

654

  Microlepia rhomboidea

NM

654

  Microlepia strigosa

AM

226

  Monachosorum henryi

AM

654

  Pteridium aquilinum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pteridium decompositum

AM

226

  Schizoloma heterophyllum

NM

653

  Stenoloma chusanum

AM

653, 654

 Aspleniaceae

  Acrophorus stipellatus

NM

654

  Acystopteris tenuisecta

AM

654

  Allantodia alata

NM

654

  Allantodia chinensis

AM

653

  Allantodia dilatata

AM

654

  Allantodia doederleinii

NM

654

  Allantodia laxifrons

AM

654

  Allantodia megaphylla

NM

654

  Allantodia spectabilis

AM

654

  Allantodia stenochlamys

NM

654

  Asplenium adiantum-nigrum

AM

226

AM+NM

260, 261

  Asplenium billotii

NM

260, 261

  Asplenium cheilosorum

AM

654

  Asplenium excisum

NM

654

  Asplenium finlaysonianum

NM

654

  Asplenium florentinum

AM

226

  Asplenium fuscipes

NM

654

  Asplenium griffithianum

NM

654

  Asplenium horridum

NM

226

  Asplenium lushanense

AM

654

  Asplenium macraei

AM

226

  Asplenium marinum

NM

260, 261

  Asplenium nidus

NM

226

  Asplenium normale

AM

226

NM

654

  Asplenium onopteris

NM

472

  Asplenium pekinense

NM

654

  Asplenium praemosum

NM

654

  Asplenium prolongatum

NM

654

  Asplenium ruta-muraria

AM+NM

260, 261

  Asplenium septentrionale

NM

260, 261

  Asplenium sphenotomum

AM

226

  Asplenium tenuicaule

NM

654

  Asplenium trichomanes

AM+NM

260, 261

  Asplenium unilaterale

AM

226

NM

654

  Asplenium varians

NM

654

  Asplenium viride

AM+NM

260, 261

  Asplenium wrightioides

NM

654

  Asplenium yunnanense

NM

654

  Athyriopsis longipes

AM

654

  Athyriopsis ptersennii

AM

654

  Athyrium anisopterum

NM

654

  Athyrium biserrulatum

AM

654

  Athyrium delicatulum

NM

654

  Athyrium dissitifolium

AM

654

  Athyrium distentifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Athyrium esculentum

AM

226

  Athyrium filix-femina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Athyrium japonica

AM

226

  Athyrium mackinnonii

NM

654

  Athyrium macraei

AM

226

  Athyrium mengtzeense

AM

654

  Athyrium microphyllum

AM

226

  Athyrium niponicum

NM

654

  Athyrium sandwichianum

AM

226

  Athyrium stigillosum

AM

654

  Athyrium wardii

AM

653

  Bolbitis heteroclita

NM

654

  Bolbitis hokouensis

NM

654

  Callipteris esculenta

AM

653

NM

654

  Ceterach officinarum

NM

260, 261

  Ctenitis mariformis

AM

653

  Ctenitis membranifolia

NM

654

  Ctenitopsis devexa

NM

654

  Ctenitopsis glabra

NM

654

  Ctenitopsis sagenioides

NM

654

  Ctenitopsis setulaosa

NM

654

  Ctenitopsis subsageriacea

NM

654

  Cystopteris fragilis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cystopteris montana

NM

260, 261

  Cystopteris pellucida

AM

653

  Diacalpe christensenae

NM

654

  Diplazium donianum

AM

653

NM

654

  Diplazium lanceum

AM

653

  Diplazium splendens

AM

654

  Dryoathyrium boryanum

NM

654

  Dryoathyrium edentulum

AM

654

  Egenolfia sinensis

AM

654

  Egenolfia tokinensis

AM

654

  Gymnocarpium dryopteris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Hypodematium crenatum

AM

654

  Lomariopsis spectabilis

NM

654

  Lunathyrium dolosum

NM

654

  Monomelangium pullingeri var. daweishannicolum

AM

654

  Neottopteris antrophyoides

NM

654

  Neottopteris simonsiana

NM

654

  Phyllitis scolopendrium

AM

260, 261

  Pleocnemia winitei

NM

654

  Pseudocystopteris atkinsonii

NM

654

  Quercifilix zeylanica

NM

654

  Tectaria coadunata

NM

654

  Tectaria decurrens

NM

654

  Tectaria dubia

NM

654

  Tectaria hainanensis

NM

654

  Tectaria hokouensis

NM

654

  Tectaria simonii

NM

654

  Tectaria variolosa

NM

654

  Tectaria yunnanensis

NM

654

  Woodsia alpina

NM

260, 261

  Woodsia ilvensis

NM

260, 261

 Thelypteridaceae

  Ampelopteris prolifera

NM

654

  Dictyocline wilfordii

AM

653

  Cyclogramma auriculata

AM

654

  Cyclosorus acuminatus

NM

654

  Cyclosorus dentatus

NM

654

  Cyclosorus hokouensis

AM

654

  Cyclosorus mollicesculus

NM

654

  Cyclosorus parasiticus

NM

654

  Cyclosorus subnigrescens

NM

654

  Cyclosorus truncatus

NM

654

  Dictyocline griffithii

AM

654

  Glaphylopteridopsis erubescens

AM

654

  Macrothelypteris toressiana

AM

654

  Metathelypteris flaccida

NM

654

  Oreopteris limbosperma

AM

260, 261

  Parathelypteris beddomei

NM

654

  Parathelypteris hirsutipes

AM

654

  Parathelypteris nipponica

NM

653

  Phegopteris connectilis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pronephrium gymnopteridifrons

NM

654

  Pronephrium nudotum

NM

654

  Pronephrium simplex

NM

654

  Pseudocyclosorus esquirolii

AM

654

  Pseudocyclosorus subochthodes

NM

654

  Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorachis

NM

654

  Pseudophegopteris yunkweiensis

NM

654

  Thelypteris cyatheoides

NM

226

  Thelypteris globulifera

AM

226

  Thelypteris hudsoniana

AM

226

  Thelypteris interrupta

NM

226

  Thelypteris parasitica

AM

226

  Thelypteris sandwicensis

NM

226

  Thelypteris thelypteroides

AM+NM

260, 261

 Blechnaceae

  Blechnum occidentale

AM

226

  Blechnum orientale

AM

654

  Blechnum penna-marina

NM

342

  Blechnum spicant

AM+NM

260, 261

  Brainea insignis

NM

654

  Doodia kunthiana

AM

226

  Sadleria cyatheoides

AM

226

  Sadleria squarrosa

AM

226

  Woodwardia japonica

AM

654

  Woodwardia orientalis

AM

653

  Woodwardia unigemmata

NM

654

 Dryopteridaceae

  Acrorumohra diffraeta

AM

654

  Arachniodes festina

AM

653

  Arachniodes globisora

AM

654

  Arachniodes rhomboidea

AM

653

  Arachniodes simplicior

AM

653

  Arachniodes sporadosora

NM

654

  Cyrtomium caryotideum f. caryotideum

AM

654

  Cyrtomium fortunei

NM

654

  Dryopteris basisora

NM

654

  Dryopteris caroli-hopei

NM

654

  Dryopteris carthusiana

AM

598

AM+NM

260, 261

  Dryopteris chrysocoma

NM

654

  Dryopteris cochleata

NM

654

  Dryopteris cristata

AM

260, 261

  Dryopteris dilatata

AM

260, 261

  Dryopteris filix-mas

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Dryopteris fructuosa

AM

654

  Dryopteris fuscipes

AM

653

  Dryopteris fusco-atra

AM

226

  Dryopteris glabra

AM

226

  Dryopteris lepidopoda

NM

654

  Dryopteris marginata

AM

654

  Dryopteris odontoloma

NM

654

  Dryopteris sparsa

AM

654

  Dryopteris stenolepis

NM

654

  Dryopteris sublacera

AM

654

  Dryopteris thelypteris

AM

140

  Dryopteris unidentata

AM

226

  Dryopteris wallichiana

AM

226

  Nothoperanema hendersonii

NM

654

  Polystichum aculeatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polystichum alteruatum

NM

654

  Polystichum chingae

NM

654

  Polystichum dielsii

NM

654

  Polystichum eximium

NM

654

  Polystichum jizhushanense

AM

654

  Polystichum lonchitis

AM

260, 261

  Polystichum pycnopterum

NM

654

  Polystichum tsus-simense

AM

654

  Polystichum vestitum

NM

342

  Tectaria gaudichaudii

AM

226

 Nephrolepidaceae

  Arthropteris palisotii

NM

654

  Nephrolepis biserrata

AM

35

  Nephrolepis faleata

NM

654

 Polypodiaceae

  Arthromeris mairei

NM

654

  Cheilanthes lanosa

AM

449

  Colysis diversifolia

NM

654

  Colysis hemitoma

NM

653

  Colysis hokouensis

NM

654

  Colysis pentaphylla

NM

654

  Drynaria propinqua

NM

654

  Lepidogrammitis rostrama

NM

654

  Lepisorus contortus

NM

654

  Lepisorus macrosphaerus

NM

654

  Lepisorus scolopendrium

NM

654

  Microsorium carinatum

NM

654

  Microsorium henryi

NM

654

  Microsorium membranaceum

NM

654

  Microsorium punctatum

NM

654

  Microsorium spectrum

NM

226

  Neocheiropteris palmatopedata

NM

654

  Neolepisorus ovatus

NM

654

  Neolepisorus sinensis

NM

654

  Onoclea sensibilis

AM

140

  Phlebodium aureum

NM

226

  Phymatopsis crenatopinnata

NM

654

  Phymatopsis nigrovenia

NM

654

  Phymatopsis trisecta

NM

654

  Phymatosorus scolopendria

NM

226

  Pleopeltis thunbergiana

NM

226

  Polypodiodes amoenum

NM

654

  Polypodium pellucidum

NM

226

  Polypodium vulgare

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pyrrosia adnaseens

NM

654

  Pyrrosia gralla

NM

654

  Pyrrosia lingua

NM

654

  Pyrrosia mollis

NM

654

  Pyrrosia subfurfuracea

NM

654

  Pyrrosia tonkinensis

NM

654

  Tricholepidium maculosum

NM

654

 Grammitidaceae

  Adenophorus abietinus

AM

226

  Adenophorus pinnatifidus

NM

226

  Adenophorus tamariscinus

AM

226

  Grammitis baldwinii

NM

226

  Grammitis poeppigeana

NM

342

  Grammitis tenella

AM

226

  Loxogramme ensiformis

NM

654

  Xiphopteris saffordii

NM

226

 Davalliaceae

  Araiostegia perdurans

NM

654

  Nephrolepis cordifolia

AM

226

  Nephrolepis exaltata

AM

226

  Nephrolepis multiflora

AM

226

GYMNOSPERMS

 Cycadaceae

  Cycas circinalis

AM

423

  Cycas revoluta

AM

423

 Zamiaceae

  Ceratozamia mexicana

AM

616

  Dioon edule

AM

203, 616

  Lepidozamia hopei

AM

484

  Macrozamia reidlei

AM

93

  Zamia pumila

AM

203

 Ginkgoaceae

  Ginkgo biloba

AM

206

 Pinaceae

  Abies alba

ECM

189

  Abies grandis

ECM

375

  Abies lasiocarpa

ECM

314

  Abies spp.

ECM

260, 261

  Cedrus atlantica

ECM

431

  Larix decidua

ECM

260, 261

  Larix kaempferi

ECM

644, 260, 261

  Larix occidentalis

ECM

156

  Picea abies

ECM

8

ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Picea engelmannii

ECM

314

  Picea glauca

ECM

285, 338, 414, 470

  Picea glehnii

ECM

308

  Picea mariana

ECM

91

  Picea rubens

ECM

232

  Picea sitchensis

ECM

13, 205, 260, 261

  Pinus banksiana

ECM

91

  Pinus cembra

ECM

498

  Pinus contorta

ECM

98, 156, 403

  Pinus densiflora

ECM

228, 309, 634, 635

  Pinus echinata

ECM

444

  Pinus edulis

ECM

223, 265, 470

  Pinus elliottii

ECM

470, 564

  Pinus halepensis

ECM

411, 590

  Pinus jeffreyi

ECM

617

  Pinus lambertiana

ECM

617

  Pinus massoniana

ECM

323, 564

  Pinus montezumae

ECM

509

  Pinus muricata

ECM

218, 280

ECM+AM

281

  Pinus nigra

ECM

260, 261

  Pinus patula

ECM

487

  Pinus pinaster

ECM

458, 260, 261

  Pinus pinea

ECM

368, 451

  Pinus ponderosa

AM

550

ECM

156, 188, 375, 506, 618

  Pinus radiata

ECM

184

  Pinus resinosa

ECM

363, 470

  Pinus rigida

ECM

152

  Pinus sylvestris

ECM

239, 320, 420

ECM+EEM+NM

260, 261

  Pinus tabulaeformis

ECM

634, 635

  Pinus taeda

ECM

139, 160, 190

  Pinus thunbergii

ECM

364

  Pseudotsuga menziesii

ECM

70, 156, 236, 259, 280, 375

AM

550

AM+ECM

116

ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Tsuga heterophylla

ECM

9, 313

AM+ECM

116

 Ephedraceae

  Ephedra trifurca

AM

137

 Welwitschiaceae

  Welwitschia mirabilis

AM

296

 Gnetaceae

  Gnetum africanum

ECM

445

  Gnetum buchholzianum

ECM

445

  Gnetum sp.

AM+ECM

445

 Araucariaceae

  Agathis robusta

AM

388

  Araucaria angustifolia

AM

31, 89, 650

  Araucaria cunninghamii

AM

388

  Wollemia nobilis

AM+EEM

388

  Wollemia sp.

ECM

656

 Podocarpaceae

  Dacrycarpus dacrydioidies

AM

504

  Dacrydium cupressinum

AM

504

  Parasitaxus ustus

Mycoheterotrophy via AM?

659

  Podocarpus falcatus

AM

637, 638

  Prumnopitys ferruginea

AM

504

  Prumnopitys taxifolia

AM

504

 Taxodiaceae

  Metasequoia glyptostroboides

AM

559

  Sequoia sempervirens

AM

6

  Sequoiadendrom giganteum

AM

6

 Cupressaceae

  Austrocedrus chilensis

AM

207

  Chamaecyparis thyoides

AM

106

  Juniperus communis

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Juniperus communis ssp. nana

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Juniperus monosperma

AM

470

  Juniperus oxycedrusL. ssp. macrocarpa

AM

368

  Juniperus procera

AM

637, 638

  Libocedrous decurrens

AM

6, 25

  Tetraclinis articulata

AM

169, 412

  Thuja occidentalis

AM

81, 385

  Thuja plicata

AM

100

 Taxaceae

  Taxus baccata

AM

637, 638, 260, 261

  Taxus × media

AM

515

ANGIOSPERMS

 Nymphaeaceae

  Nuphar × intermedia

NM

260, 261

  Nuphar lutea

NM

62, 260, 261

  Nuphar pumila

NM

260, 261

  Nymphaea alba

NM

260, 261

  Nymphaea sp.

AM

656

 Acoraceae

  Acorus calamus

AM

531

NM

260, 261

 Tofieldiaceae

  Tofieldia pusilla

AM

260, 261

 Araceae

  Aglaonema modestum

AM

655

  Alocasia longiloba

AM

655

  Alocasis macrorrhiza

AM

422

  Amorphophallus bannaensis

AM

422

  Anthurium affine

AM

510

  Anthurium pentaphyllum

AM

510

  Anthurium pitteri

AM

474

  Arum italicum

AM

260, 261

  Arum maculatum

AM

260, 261

  Arum neglectum

AM

260, 261

  Caladium bicolor

AM

510

  Calla palustris

NM

260, 261

  Colacasia esculenta

AM

531

  Dieffenbachia amoena

AM

510

  Philodendron ornatum

NM

510

  Philodendron undulatum

NM

510

  Pistia stratiotes

NM

510

  Rhaphidophora decursiva

AM

422

 Hydrocharitaceae

  Egreria densa

NM

510

  Elodea canadensis

NM

62, 260, 261

  Hydrilla verticillata

NM

260, 261

  Vallisneria americana

AM

631, 632

 Butomaceae

  Butomus umbellatus

NM

260, 261

 Alismataceae

  Alisma lanceolatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Alisma plantago-aquatica

AM

58

NM

62, 260, 261

  Alisma subcordatum

Weak AM

626

  Alisma triviale

AM

140

  Baldellia ranunculoides

AM

368

  Echinodorus grandiflorus

NM

510

  Sagitaria latifolia

AM

626

 Limnocharitaceae

  Hydrocleys nymphoides

NM

510

 Juncaginaceae

  Triglochin maritima

AM+NM

260, 261

  Triglochin palustris

NM

260, 261

 Potamogetonaceae

  Potamogeton crispus

NM

62, 260, 261

  Potamogeton gramineus

NM

62

  Potamogeton lucens

NM

62

  Potamageton natans

AM

58

NM

62, 260, 261

  Potamogeton perfoliatus

NM

62

  Potamogeton polygonifolius

NM

260, 261

  Potamogeton praelongus

NM

62

 Petrosaviaceae

  Petrosavia sakuraii

Mycoheterotrophy

657, 658

  Petrosavia stellaris

Mycoheterotrophy

657, 658

 Nartheciaceae

  Narthecium ossifragum

AM+NM

260, 261

 Burmanniaceae

  Burmannia tenella

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

290

  Thismia sp.

Mycoheterotrophy

656

 Dioscoreaceae

  Tacca chantrieri

NM

655

  Tamus communis

AM

260, 261

 Triuridaceae

  Sciaphila polygyna

Mycoheterotrophy

291

  Sciaphila tosaensis

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

642

 Pandanaceae

  Freycinetia arborea

AM

326

  Pandanus furcatus

NM

655

  Pandanus tectorius

NM

326

 Cyclanthaceae

  Asplundia gardneri

NM

510

 Corsiaceae

  Arachnitis uniflora

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

 Alstroemeriaceae

  Alstroemeria aurea

AM

207

 Colchicaceae

  Colchicum autumnale

AM

260, 261

 Melanthiaceae

  Paris quadrifolia

AM+NM

260, 261

  Trillium flexipes

AM

165

  Veratrum viride

AM

140

 Smilacaceae

  Smilax aspera

AM

63, 368

  Smilax corbularia

AM

422

  Smilax hypoglauca

AM

422

  Smilax indica

AM

422

 Liliaceae

  Gagea lutea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lilium martagon

AM

260, 261

  Muscari comosum

AM

260, 261

  Muscari neglectum

AM

260, 261

  Smilacina racemosa

AM

165

 Orchidaceae

  Aceras anthropophorum

ORM

260, 261

  Anacamptis pyramidalis

ORM

260, 261

  Anoectochilus burmannicus

ORM

422

  Anoectochilus roxburghii

ORM

422

  Anoectochilus tortus

AM

655

  Apostasia odorata

AM

422

  Arundina graminifolia

ORM

326

  Caladenia formosa

ORM

286

  Calypso bulbosa

ORM

153

  Cephalanthera austinae

Mycoheterotrophy (via ECM)

569

  Cephalanthera damasonium

ORM+ECM

78

ORM

260, 261

  Cephalanthera longifolia

ORM

260, 261

  Cephalanthera rubra

ORM+ECM

78

ORM

368, 260, 261

  Chloraea virescens

ORM

207

  Coeloglossum viride

ORM

260, 261

  Corallorhiza maculata

Mycoheterotrophy (via ECM)

569, 570, 571

  Corallorhiza mertensiana

Mycoheterotrophy

570

  Corallorhiza trifida

Mycoheterotrophy

392, 260, 261

  Corybas dienemus

ORM

342

  Cypripedium calceolus

ORM

540

ORM+NM

260, 261

  Cypripedium californicum

ORM

540

  Cypripedium candidum

ORM

540

  Cypripedium fasciculatum

ORM

540

  Cypripedium guttatum

ORM

540

  Cypripedium montanum

ORM

540

  Cypripedium parviflorum

ORM

540

  Dactylorhiza fuchsia

ORM

260, 261

  Dactylorhiza incarnara

ORM

173, 260, 261

  Dactylorhiza maculata

ORM

260, 261

  Dactylorhiza maculata ssp. ericetorum

ORM

260, 261

  Dactylorhiza majalis

ORM

78, 334, 480, 260, 261

  Dactylorhiza praetermissa

ORM

260, 261

  Dactylorhiza praetermissa var. junialis

ORM

173

  Dactylorhiza purpurella

ORM

260, 261

  Epipactis atrorubens

ORM+ECM

78

ORM

304, 260, 261

  Epipactis distans

ORM+ECM

78

  Epipactis helleborine

ORM+ECM

78

ORM

260, 261

  Epipactis microphylla

ORM+ECM

530

  Epipactis palustris

ORM

78, 481

ORM+NM

260, 261

  Epipactis purpurata

ORM

260, 261

  Epipogium aphyllum

ORM

260, 261

  Goodyera repens

ORM

260, 261

  Gymnadenia conopsea

ORM

260, 261

  Gymnadenia odoratissima

ORM

260, 261

  Haemaria discolor var. dawsoniana

ORM

122

  Hammarbya paludosa

ORM

260, 261

  Herminium monorchis

ORM

260, 261

  Hexalectris spicata

Mycoheterotrophy (via ECM)

572

  Himantoglossum hircinum

ORM

260, 261

  Ionopsis utricularioides

ORM

448

  Liparis loeselii

ORM

260, 261

  Listera cordata

ORM

260, 261

  Listera ovata

ORM

260, 261

  Malaxis latifolia

ORM

422

  Microtis parviflora

ORM

459

  Neotinea maculata

ORM

260, 261

  Neottia nidus-avis

ORM+ECM

78

ORM

260, 261

  Newiedia veratrifolia

ORM

333

  Ophrys apifera

ORM

260, 261

  Ophrys fuciflora

ORM

260, 261

  Ophrys insectifera

ORM

260, 261

  Ophrys lutea

ORM

56

  Ophrys sphegodes

ORM

260, 261

  Orchis mascula

ORM

260, 261

  Orchis militaris

ORM

260, 261

  Orchis morio

ORM

75, 173, 260, 261

  Orchis palustris

ORM

195

  Orchis purpurea

ORM

260, 261

  Orchis simia

ORM

260, 261

  Orchis ustulata

ORM

260, 261

  Phaius mishmensis

AM

655

  Platanthera bifolia

ORM

260, 261

  Platanthera chlorantha

ORM

78, 260, 261

  Platanthera leucophaea

ORM

652

  Pseudorchis albida

ORM

260, 261

  Pterostylis acuminata

ORM

460

  Serapias vomeracea ssp. vomeracea

ORM

195

  Spathoglottis plicata

ORM

326, 534, 565

  Spiranthes aestivalis

ORM

260, 261

  Spiranthes sinensis var. amoena

ORM

376

  Spiranthes spiralis

ORM

368, 260, 261

  Stanhopea tigrina

ORM

196

  Tolumnia variegata

ORM

448

 Asteliaceae

  Astelia menziesiana

AM

326

 Hypoxidaceae

  Curculigo capitulata

AM

422

 Iridaceae

  Crocus vernus

AM

260, 261

  Gladiolus segetum

AM

260, 261

  Iris foetidissima

AM

260, 261

  Iris germanica

AM

260, 261

  Iris pseudacorus

AM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sisyrinchium atlanticum

AM

643

  Sisyrinchium sp.

NM

207

  Sparaxis tricolor

AM

514

 Hemerocallidaceae

  Dianella sandwicensis

AM

326

 Asphodelaceae

  Asphodelus fistulosus

AM

114, 115

  Bulbine alata

AM

438

  Haworthia tortuosa

AM

417

 Alliaceae

  Allium ampeloprasum

AM

260, 261

  Allium canadense

AM

140

  Allium cepa

AM

7, 349, 260, 261

  Allium oleraceum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Allium porrum

AM

272, 260, 261

  Allium sativum

AM

260, 261

  Allium schoenoprasum

AM

3, 260, 261

  Allium scorodoprasum

AM

260, 261

  Allium sphaerocephalon

AM

472, 260, 261

  Allium subhirsutum

AM

472

  Allium triquetrum

AM

260, 261

  Allium ursinum

AM

260, 261

 Amaryllidaceae

  Galanthus nivalis

AM

260, 261

  Leucojum aestivum

AM

260, 261

  Leucojum vernum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Narcissus poeticus

AM

260, 261

  Narcissus pseudonarcissus

AM

260, 261

 Themidaceae

  Brodiaea laxa

AM

513

 Hyacinthaceae

  Hyacinthoides non-scripta

AM

398, 399, 260, 261

  Ornithogalum nutans

AM

260, 261

  Ornithogalum pyrenaicum

AM

260, 261

  Ornithogalum umbellatum

AM

260, 261

  Scilla autumnalis

AM

260, 261

 Agavaceae

  Agave americana

AM

343

  Agave datylio

Weak AM

112

  Agave deserti

AM

151

  Agave marmorata

AM

103

  Agave salmiana

Weak AM

103

  Agave univittata

AM

417

  Yucca elata

AM

137

  Yucca periculosa

Weak AM

103

  Yucca valida

AM

417

 Asparagaceae

  Asparagus acutifolius

AM

368, 472

  Asparagus officinalis

AM

192, 383, 260, 261

 Ruscaceae

  Convallaria majalis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Maianthemum bifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygonatum multiflorum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygonatum odoratum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygonatum verticillatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ruscus aculeatus

AM

368, 260, 261

 Arecaceae

  Astrocaryum mexicanum

AM

436

  Bactris gasipaes

AM

135

  Caryota monostachya

AM

655

  Cocos nucifera

AM

326, 580

  Euterpe edulis

AM

651

  Euterpe oleracea

AM

130

  Serenoa repens

AM

201

  Syagrus romanzoffiana

Weak AM

651

  Wallichia mooreana

NM

655

 Sparganiaceae

  Sparganium angustifolium

NM

62

  Sparganium chlorocarpum

AM

58

  Sparganium emersum

NM

62

  Sparganium erectum

NM

62

AM

260, 261

  Sparganium eurycarpum

Weak AM

626

 Typhaceae

  Typha angustifolia

NM

62, 368

Weak AM

557

AM

566, 260, 261

  Typha latifolia

NM

62

Weak AM

557

AM

140, 185, 599

  Typha × glauca

Weak AM

557

 Bromeliaceae

  Aechmea stelligera

NM

510

  Ananas comosus

AM

44, 246

  Hechtia aff. podantha

Weak AM

103

  Vriesea limae

AM

510

 Juncaceae

  Juncus acutiflorus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncus alpinus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncus articulatus

AM

260, 261

  Juncus biglumis

NM

260, 261

  Juncus bufonius

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncus bulbosus

NM

62, 260, 261

  Juncus dudleyi

AM

599

  Juncus effuses

NM

62

AM

140

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncus filiformis

Weak AM

194

NM

260, 261

  Juncus gerardi

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncusinflexus

AM

260, 261

  Juncus maritimus

NM

368, 260, 261

  Juncus nodosus

AM

599

  Juncus planifolius

AM

326

  Juncus roemerianus

AM

278

  Juncus scheuchzerioides

AM

342

NM

560

  Juncus squarrosus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Juncus torreyi

AM

599

  Juncus trifidus

AM

260, 261

  Luzula campestris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Luzula crinita var. crinita

NM

342

  Luzula hawaiiensis

AM

326

  Luzula luzuloides

NM

260, 261

  Luzula pallescens

NM

260, 261

  Luzula pilosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Luzula spicata

AM

260, 261

  Luzula sylvatica

NM

260, 261

 Cyperaceae

  Bequerelia cymosa

AM

426

  Bulboschoneus maritimus

AM

426

  Bulbostylis barbata

Facultative AM

426

  Bulbostylis capillaris

NM

326

AM

149

Facultative AM

426

  Bulbostylis cf. conifera

AM

358

  Bulbostylis densa

AM

426

  Bulbostylis paradoxa

AM

358

  Bulbostylis puberula

NM

426

  Carex acnescens

NM

426

  Carex acuta

NM

62, 260, 261

  Carex acutiformis

NM

260, 261

  Carex albonigra

NM

426

  Carex amphibola

NM

402

  Carex annectens

AM

402

  Carex aphylla

NM

207

  Carex aquatilis

NM

426

  Carex arenaria

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex atherodes

NM

402

Facultative AM

426

  Carex baccans

AM

426

  Carex bicknellii

AM

402

  Carex bigelowii

NM

501, 594, 426

  Carex blanda

AM

402

  Carex boelckeiana

NM

207

  Carex brevior

AM

402

  Carex brizoides

NM

426

  Carex brunnescens

AM

194

  Carex buxbaumii

AM

402

NM

260, 261

  Carex caryophyllea

NM

456, 260, 261

  Carex cephalophora

AM

402

  Carex chordorrhiza

NM

260, 261

  Carex crawei

AM

402

  Carex cristatella

AM

58, 402

  Carex curta

NM

260, 261

  Carex davalliana

AM

260, 261

  Carex digitata

NM

260, 261

  Carex dioica

NM

260, 261

  Carex distans

NM

260, 261

  Carex disticha

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex divulsa

AM

260, 261

  Carex ebenea

NM

426

  Carex echinata

NM

260, 261

  Carex elongata

NM

260, 261

  Carex ericetorum

NM

456, 260, 261

  Carex fillifolia

NM

426

  Carex flacca

NM

426

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex flava

AM

140

NM

426

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex fuscula

AM

426

  Carex gayana

NM

426

  Carex grannularis

AM

402, 599

  Carex gravida

AM

402

  Carex hallerana

NM

472

  Carex hirta

AM

456

NM

260, 261

  Carex hostiana

NM

260, 261

  Carex humilis

NM

260, 261

  Carex hystericina

NM

426

  Carex interior

NM

402

  Carex lachenalii

NM

426, 260, 261

  Carex lanuginosa

NM

599

  Carex lasiocarpa

AM

58

Weak AM

626

Facultative AM

426

NM

426, 260, 261

  Carex lepidocarpa

NM

260, 261

  Carex limosa

NM

260, 261

  Carex lindleyana

AM

426

  Carex lurida

AM

58, 140

  Carex madoviana

NM

426

  Carex maritime

NM

426

  Carex membranacea

NM

426

  Carex mertensii

NM

584

  Carex meyenii

AM

326

  Carex microchaeta

NM

594

  Carex misandra

NM

426

  Carex montana

NM

260, 261

  Carex muricata

NM

426

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex myosurus

AM

426

  Carex nardina

NM

426

  Carex nigra

AM

140, 194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex otrubae

NM

260, 261

  Carex oxyandra

NM

587

  Carex pallescens

AM

194

NM

260, 261

  Carex panacea

AM

194

  Carex panicea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex paniculata

NM

260, 261

  Carex pellita

NM

402

  Carex pendula

NM

368, 260, 261

  Carex pensylvanica

AM

402

  Carex pilulifera

NM

260, 261

  Carex podocarpa

NM

594

  Carex pulicaris

NM

260, 261

  Carex remota

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex riparia

NM

260, 261

  Carex rosea

AM

402

  Carex rostrata

NM

260, 261

  Carex scoparia

AM

402

NM

140

  Carex serotina

NM

260, 261

  Carex speciosa

AM

426

  Carex sprengelii

NM

402

  Carex stenophylla ssp. eleocharis

NM

426

  Carex sterilis

NM

426

  Carex stipata

AM

140, 402

  Carex stricta

NM

140, 402

AM

626

Facultative AM

426

  Carex aff. subantarticata

NM

426

  Carex subspathecea

NM

426

  Carex sylvatica

NM

426, 260, 261

  Carex tenera

NM

402

  Carex tetanica

AM

402

  Carex tribuloides

AM

58, 140

  Carex trichocarpa

AM

599

  Carex trifida

NM

342

  Carex ursine

NM

426

  Carex urticulata

NM

426

  Carex vaginata

NM

503, 260, 261

  Carex vesicaria

AM

626

AM+NM

260, 261

  Carex vulpina

NM

260, 261

  Carex vulpinoidea

AM

58, 140, 402

  Carex wahuensis

AM

326

NM

426

  Caustis dioica

NM

426

  Caustis flexuosa

AM

67

  Cladium amaicense

AM

426

  Cladium jamaicense

AM

297

  Cladium mariscus

NM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cyathochaeta avenccea

NM

426

  Cyperus arenarius

AM

426

  Cyperus articulatus

Weak AM

143

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus brevifolius

AM

426

  Cyperus bulbosus

NM

426

  Cyperus castaneous

NM

426

  Cyperus clarkei

AM

426

  Cyperus compressus

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus cyperinus

AM

426

  Cyperus decompositus

NM

426

  Cyperus difformis

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus distans

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus dubius

AM

426

  Cyperus esculentus

NM

426

  Cyperus exaltatus

NM

426

  Cyperus flavescens

AM

599

  Cyperus halpan

Facultative AM

426

NM

426

  Cyperus iria

AM

424, 426

  Cyperus javanicus

NM

426

  Cyperus kyllinga

Facultative AM

355, 426

  Cyperus laevigatus

AM

426

  Cyperus ligularis

AM

426

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus luzulae

NM

426

  Cyperus microiria

NM

643

  Cyperus niveus

AM

343

  Cyperus nutans

AM

426

  Cyperus odoratus

AM

426

  Cyperus paniceus

AM

426

  Cyperus pilosus

AM

426

  Cyperus platyphyllus

AM

426

  Cyperus pohlii

NM

426

  Cyperus pygmaeus

AM

426

  Cyperus rotundus

NM

326

AM

343, 424, 425

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus squarrosus

AM

426

  Cyperus stoloniferous

AM

426

  Cyperus strigosus

AM

599

NM

426

  Cyperus surinamensis

Facultative AM

426

  Cyperus tenuispica

NM

426

  Cyperus triceps

AM

426

  Eleocharis acutangula

AM

426

  Eleocharis dulcis

AM

426

  Eleocharis erythropoda

NM

599

  Eleocharis geniculata

AM

426

NM

426

  Eleocharis multicaulis

NM

260, 261

  Eleocharis ovata

AM

140

  Eleocharis aff. pachycarpa

NM

426

  Eleocharis palustris

NM

62

AM+NM

260, 261

  Eleocharis quinqueflora

NM

260, 261

  Eleocharis scheuchezeri

NM

426

  Eleocharis tenius

NM

426

  Eleocharis triste

NM

426

  Eleocharis uniglumis

NM

260, 261

  Eleocharis vaginatum

NM

426

  Eriophorum angustifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Eriophorum latifolium

NM

260, 261

  Eriophorum vaginatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Fimbristylis consanguinea

AM

426

  Fimbristylis cymosa

NM

326, 355

  Fimbristylis eragrostis

AM

426

  Fimbristylis falcata

Facultative AM

426

  Fimbristylis miliacea

Facultative AM

426

  Fimbristylis ovata

Facultative AM

426

  Fimbristylis schoenoides

NM

426

  Fimbristylis trachycarya

NM

426

  Fimbristylis triflora

NM

426

  Frimbristyllis complanata

NM

149

  Fuirena ciliaris

NM

426

  Gahnia gahiniformis

NM

426

  Gahnia vitiensis

AM

326

  Gahnia vitiensis ssp. kauaiensis

AM

326

  Hypolytrum bullatum

AM

426

  Hypolytrum pulchrum

AM

149, 358

  Isolepis antartica

NM

426

  Isolepis aucklandica

NM

342

  Isolepis nodosa

AM

426

  Kobresia bellardii

AM

426

  Kobresia myosuroides

Facultative AM

426

ECM

656

  Kobresia simpliciuscula

NM

426, 260, 261

  Kyllinga brevifolia

NM

422, 426

  Kyllinga bulbosa

NM

426

  Kyllinga nemoralis

NM

426

  Lagenocarpus guianensis

AM

358

  Lagenocarpus sphacelata

NM

426

  Lepidosperma gracile

AM

397

  Machaerina augustifolia

NM

326

  Machaerina mariscoides

AM

326

  Mariscus dubius

NM

426

  Mariscus mariscoides ssp. meyenii

AM

426

  Mariscus meyenianus

AM

326

  Mariscus paniceus

NM

426

  Mariscus squarrosus

NM

426

  Mesomelaena pseudostygia

NM

426

  Oreobolus furcatus

AM

326

  Pleurostachys cephalotes

Facultative AM

426

  Pycreus flavidus

AM

426

  Pycreus polystachyos

Facultative AM

426

AM

326

  Pycreus pumilus

AM

426

  Pycreus puncticulatus

NM

426

  Rhynchospora barbata

AM

149, 358

  Rhynchospora brasiliensis

AM

358

  Rhynchospora cephalotes

Facultative AM

426

  Rhynchospora ciliata

NM

426

  Rhynchospora cormbosa

AM

426

  Rhynchospora longisetis

NM

426

  Rhynchospora pubera

AM

426

  Rikliella squarrosa

AM

426

  Schoenoplectus grossus

NM

426

  Schoenoplectus juncoides

NM

426

  Schoenoplectus senegalensis

NM

426

  Schoenoplectus supinus

AM

426

  Schoenus ferrugineus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Schoenus nigricans

AM+NM

260, 261

  Scirpus acutus

AM

58, 626

  Scirpus atrovirens

AM

58, 140, 599, 626

  Scirpus cespitosus

NM

426

  Scirpus cyperinus

AM

58, 140

  Scirpus fluviatilis

AM

426

  Scirpus holoschoenus

NM

368

  Scirpus maritimus

AM

626

NM

260, 261

  Scirpus pendulus

AM

599

  Scirpus aff. perpusillus

NM

426

  Scirpus pungens

AM

599

  Scirpus robustus

AM

426

  Scirpus sylvaticus

NM

260, 261

  Scirpus tabernaemontani

AM

599

  Scirpus validus

AM

58

  Scleria latifolia

Facultative AM

426

  Scleria lithosperma

AM

426

  Scleria melaleuca

Facultative AM

426

  Tetraria capillaris

AM

397

  Trichophorum alpinum

NM

260, 261

  Trichophorum cespitosum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Uncinia richleriana

NM

207

  Uncinia uncinata

NM

326

 Restionaceae

  Alexgeorgea nitens

AM

397

  Lyginia barbata

AM

397

 Poaceae

  Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis

AM

620

  Agropyron desertorum

AM

183

  Agropyron repens

AM

307

  Agropyron smithii

AM

354

  Agropyron trachycaulum

AM

132

  Agropyron tsukushiense var. pransiens

AM

643

  Agropyron tsukushiense var. transiens

AM

294

  Agrostis alba

AM

140

  Agrostis canina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Agrostis capillaris

AM

242

AM+NM

260, 261

  Agrostis gigantea

AM

260, 261

  Agrostis magellanica

AM

560

NM

342

  Agrostis palustris

AM

126

  Agrostis scabra

AM

95, 587

  Agrostis stolonifera

AM

456, 467

AM+NM

260, 261

  Agrostis stolonifera ssp.stolonifera

NM

307

  Aira caryophyllea

NM

207

AM+NM

260, 261

  Aira praecox

AM+NM

260, 261

  Alopecurus aequalis

NM

260, 261

  Alopecurus geniculatus

AM

260, 261

  Alopecurus myosuroides

AM

260, 261

  Alopecurus pratensis

AM

260, 261

  Ammocalamagrostis baltica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ammophila arenaria

AM

331, 368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ammophila breviligulata

AM

224, 225, 324, 352

  Ampelodesmosmauritanicus

AM

472

  Andropogon capillipes

AM

415

  Andropogon gerardii

Facultative AM

29

AM

168, 263, 276, 524

  Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus

AM

88

  Andropogon virginicus

AM

326, 415

  Anthoxanthum odoratum

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Apera spica-venti

AM

260, 261

  Aristida adscensionis

AM

479

  Aristida contorta

Weak AM

438

  Aristida holathera

NM

438

  Aristida longiseta

AM

604

  Aristida mutabilis

AM

567

  Aristida aff. romeriana

AM

143

  Aristida stricta

NM

30, 415

  Arrhenatherum elatius

AM+NM

260, 261

  Avena barbata

AM

472

  Avena fatua

AM

260, 261

  Avena sativa

AM

15

AM+NM

260, 261

  Avena strigosa

AM

260, 261

  Avenula pratensis

AM

260, 261

  Avenula pubescens

AM

260, 261

  Axonopus pruinosus

AM

358

  Beckmannia syzigachne

AM

294

  Bothriochloa pertusa

AM

343

  Bouteloua eripoda

AM

137

  Boutelous repens

AM

143

  Brachiaria decumbens

AM

150, 358

  Brachiaria humidicola

AM

150, 358

  Brachypodium pinnatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Brachypodium ramosum

AM

472

  Brachypodium sylvaticum

AM

260, 261

  Briza maxima

AM

472, 260, 261

  Briza media

AM+NM

260, 261

  Briza minor

AM

643, 260, 261

  Bromus erectus

AM

260, 261

  Bromus hordeaceus

AM

493

AM+NM

260, 261

  Bromus inermis

AM

260, 261

  Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens

AM

646

  Bromus sterilis

NM

260, 261

  Bromus tectorum

Facultative AM

237

  Calamagrostis canescens

AM

260, 261

  Calamagrostis epigejos

AM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Calamagrostis stricta

AM

260, 261

  Calamagrostis villosa

AM

54, 366, 615

  Calamovilfa longifolia

AM

88

  Catapodium rigidum

AM

472

  Cenchrus ciliaris

AM

20

  Cenchrus setigerus

AM

567

  Chusquea culeou

AM

207

  Cinna arundinacea

AM

140

  Corynephorus canescens

AM

81

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cymbopogon jwarancusa

AM

567

  Cymbopogon winterianus

AM

327

  Cynodon dactylon

AM

294, 260, 261

  Cynosurus cristatus

AM

260, 261

  Dactylis glomerata

AM

497

AM+NM

260, 261

  Danthonia decumbens

AM

194, 260, 261

  Dendrocalamus asper

AM

608

  Dendrocalamus strictus

AM

482

  Deschampsia antarctica

Facultative AM

166

NM

560

  Deschampsia caespitosa

NM

342

  Deschampsia cespitosa

AM

194, 293, 260, 261

  Deschampsia chapmanii

AM

342

  Deschampsia flexuosa

AM

194, 270, 366, 615, 260, 261

  Desmazeria rigida

AM

260, 261

  Dichanthelium cynodon

AM

326

  Dichanthelium lanuginosum

AM

95

  Digitaria adscendens

AM

294

  Digitaria chinensis

AM

422

  Digitaria ciliaris

Weak AM

129

AM

643

  Digitaria eriantha

AM

23

  Digitaria sanguinalis

AM

260, 261

  Digitaria violascens

AM

422

  Distichlis spicata

AM

278

  Distichlis stricta

AM

302

  Echinochloa crus-galli

AM

140

AM+NM

260, 261

  Echinolaena inflexa

AM

358

  Eleusine coracana

AM

576

  Eleusine indica

AM

422

  Elymus canadensis

AM

263, 274

  Elymus caninus

AM

260, 261

  Elymus farctus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Elymus pycnanthus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Elymus repens

AM

260, 261

  Enneapogon avenaceus

AM

438

  Eragrostis dielsii

Facultative AM

438

  Eragrostis ferruginea

AM

643

  Eriachne aristidea

Weak AM

438

  Festuca altissima

NM

260, 261

  Festuca argentina

AM

207

  Festuca arundinacea

AM

275, 260, 261

  Festuca baffinensis

AM

158

  Festuca brachyphylla

AM

158

  Festuca brigantina

AM

235

  Festuca contracta

NM

342

  Festuca erecta

AM

560

  Festuca gigantea

NM

260, 261

  Festuca hyperborea

NM

158

  Festuca idahoensis

AM

109, 371

  Festuca juncifolia

AM

260, 261

  Festuca lemanii

AM

260, 261

  Festuca ovina

AM

194, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Festuca pallescens

AM

207

  Festuca pratensis

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Festuca pumila

AM

80

  Festuca rubra

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Festuca vivipara

AM

260, 261

  Glyceria fluitans

NM

260, 261

  Glyceria maxima

NM

260, 261

  Glyceria plicata

AM+NM

260, 261

  Heteropogon contortus

AM

326, 343

  Hierochloe odorata

AM

599, 260, 261

  Holcus lanatus

AM

395, 586

AM+NM

260, 261

  Holcus mollis

AM

194, 260, 261

  Homolepsis aturensis

AM

142

  Hordeum brachyantherum

AM

293

  Hordeum comosum

AM

207

  Hordeum distichon

AM

260, 261

  Hordeum jubatum

AM

302, 626

  Hordeum murinum

AM

260, 261

  Hordeum vulgare

AM

119

AM+NM

260, 261

  Imperata cylindrica

AM

422

  Ischaemum byronis

AM

326

  Koeleria glauca

NM

260, 261

  Koeleria macrantha

AM

260, 261

  Koeleria pyramidata

NM

274

  Koeleria vurilochensis

NM

207

  Lagurus ovatus

AM

260, 261

  Lasiurus sindicus

AM

567

  Leersia hexandra

AM

404

  Leersia oryzoides

AM

58, 140

NM

260, 261

  Leymus arenarius

AM

240, 241

NM

260, 261

  Lolium perenne

AM

23, 140, 171, 307

  Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum

AM

260, 261

  Lolium perenne ssp. perenne

AM

260, 261

  Lolium temulentum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lygeum spartum

AM

170

  Melica nutans

AM+NM

260, 261

  Melica uniflora

NM

260, 261

  Microstegium ciliatum

AM

422

  Milium effusum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Molinia caerulea

AM

586, 260, 261

  Mulenbergia porteri

AM

137

  Nardus stricta

AM

194, 269, 260, 261

  Nassella leucotricha

AM

604

  Neyraudia reynaudiana

AM

343

  Oryza sativa

AM

536

  Oryzopsis hymenoides

AM

11

  Palicourea rigida

AM

358

  Panicum amarum

AM

43

  Panicum clandestinum

AM

58

  Panicum hemitomon

AM

404

  Panicum laxum

AM

149

  Panicum maximum

AM

20

  Panicum micranthum

AM

358

  Panicum nephelophilum

AM

326

  Panicum purpurascens

AM

143

  Panicum virgatum

AM

83, 134

Weak AM

626

  Panicum virginatum

AM

193

  Paractaenum novae-hollandiae

NM

438

  Parapholis incurva

AM

260, 261

  Paspalidium flavidum

AM

343

  Paspalum cf. carinatum

AM

358

  Paspalum conjugatum

AM

142

  Paspalum dilatatum

AM

243

  Paspalum notatum

AM

193, 295, 562

  Paspalum thunbergii

AM

643

  Pennisetum alopecuroides

AM

643

  Pennisetum glaucum

AM

51, 567

  Pennisetum padicillatum

AM

544

  Pennisetum parviflorum

AM

545

  Pennisetum setaceum

AM

326

  Phalaris arundinacea

AM

58, 140

NM

62

AM+NM

260, 261

  Phleum alpinum

AM

194, 260, 261

  Phleum arenarium

NM

260, 261

  Phleum phleoides

AM+NM

260, 261

  Phleum pratense

AM

132, 194, 260, 261

  Phragmites australis

NM

62

AM

140, 368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Phragmites communis

AM

620

  Piptatherum miliaceum

AM

497

  Poa alpina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa angustifolia

AM

307

  Poa annua

AM

560, 643

NM

342

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa arctica

NM

594

  Poa compressa

NM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa cookie

NM

560

AM

342

  Poa flexuosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa foliosa

NM

342

  Poa kerguelensis

AM

560

  Poa lanuginosa

AM

207

  Poa literosa

NM

342

  Poa nemoralis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa palustris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa pratensis

AM

194, 467, 626

AM+NM

260, 261

  Poa trivialis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polypogon monspeliensis

AM

260, 261

  Puccinellia distans

AM+NM

260, 261

  Puccinellia macquariensis

AM

342

  Puccinellia maritima

AM+NM

260, 261

  Puccinellia nuttalliana

AM

301

  Raddiella esembeckii

AM

358

  Rhynchelytrum repens

AM

355

  Saccharum officinarum

AM

326, 489

  Saccharum spontaneum

Weak AM

439

  Schizachyrium scoparium

Facultative AM

29

AM

117, 140

  Schizachyrium stoloniferum

AM

415

  Secale cereale

AM

512

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sesleria albicans

AM+NM

260, 261

  Setaria glauca

AM

643

  Setaria pumila

AM

260, 261

  Setaria verticillata

AM

260, 261

  Setaria viridis

AM

643

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sorghastrum nutans

AM

264

  Sorghum bicolor

AM

171

  Sorghum halpense

AM

193

  Sorghum sudanense

AM

311

  Spartina alterniflora

NM

278

Weak AM

391

  Spartina anglica

NM

260, 261

  Spartina cynosuroides

AM

278, 391

  Spartina gracilis

AM

302

  Spartina patens

AM

97, 278, 324

  Spartina pectinata

AM

626

  Spartina × townsendii

NM

260, 261

  Sphenopholis obtusa

AM

625

  Sporobolus heterolepis

AM

168

  Sporobolus virginicus

AM

144, 326

  Sporobolus wrightii

AM

491

  Stipa tenacissima

AM

497

  Themeda triandra

AM

23

  Thysanolaena maxima

AM

422

  Trachypogon gouinii

AM

144

  Trachypogon plumosus

AM

149, 353, 358

  Triodia basedowii

Weak AM

438

  Tripogon filiformis

AM

343

  Triraphis mollis

Weak AM

438

  Trisetum flavescens

AM

207, 260, 261

  Triticum aestivum

AM

15

  Triticum durum

AM

10

  Uniola paniculata

AM

563

  Vulpia ciliata ssp. ambigua

AM

110

  Zea mays

AM

123

  Zoysia japonica

AM

326

 Commelinaceae

  Amischotolype hispida

AM

655

  Commelina communis

AM

294

NM

643

  Commelina aff. erecta

AM

143

 Musaceae

  Musa acuminata

AM

163

 Heliconiaceae

  Heliconia psittacorum

AM

510

 Cannaceae

  Canna coccinea

NM

510

 Zingiberaceae

  Alpinia conchigera

AM

655

  Amomum villosum

AM

422

  Costus speciosus

AM

422

  Paramomum petaloideum

AM

655

  Renealmia guianensis

AM

510

 Costaceae

  Costus scaber

AM

510

  Costus spiralis var. spiralis

AM

510

 Myristicaceae

  Horsfieldia pandurifolia

AM

655

  Horsfieldia tetratepala

AM

422

  Myristica yunnanensis

AM

655

  Pycnanthus angolensis

AM

445

  Staudtia kamerunensis

AM

445

 Magnoliaceae

  Liriodendron tulipifera

AM

362, 470

  Magnolia henryi

AM

422, 655

  Talauma ovata

NM

548

 Annonaceae

  Annona cherimola

AM

42

  Enantia chlorantha

AM

445

  Goniothalamus griffithii

AM

422, 655

  Hexalobus crispiflorus

AM

445

  Mitrephora calcarea

AM

655

  Pseuduvaria indochinensis

NM

655

 Lauraceae

  Beilschmiedia pendula

AM

356, 357

  Cryptocarya angulata

AM

222

  Cryptocarya mackinnoniana

AM

222

  Cryptocarya yunnanensis

AM

422

  Laurus nobilis

AM

368, 603

  Lindera benzoin

AM

140

  Litsea dileniifolia

AM

655

  Litsea liyuyingi

AM

655

  Nectandra rigida

AM

31

  Ocotea indecora

AM

651

  Ocotea puberula

AM

651

  Persea americana

AM

41, 250, 326, 609

  Phoebe lanceolata

AM

422

 Aristolochiaceae

  Asarum europaeum

AM+NM

260, 261

 Piperaceae

  Peperomia hesperomannii

AM

326

  Peperomia membranacea

AM

326

  Piper longum

AM

422, 655

  Piper nigrum

AM

578

  Piper sarmentosum

AM

422

  Piper sp.

NM

422

 Papaveraceae

  Chelidonium majus

NM

260, 261

  Macleaya cordata

AM

343

  Papaver rhoeas

AM+NM

260, 261

  Papaver somniferum

NM

260, 261

 Menispermaceae

  Cocculus trilobus

AM

326

 Berberidaceae

  Berberis buxifolia

AM

207

  Berberis darwinii

NM

207

  Berberis vulgaris

AM

260, 261

  Mahonia aquifolium

AM

260, 261

  Podophyllum peltatum

AM

410, 621

 Ranunculaceae

  Aconitum delphinifolium

AM

594

  Aconitum napellus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Actea spicata

AM+NM

260, 261

  Anemone nemorosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Anemone ranunculoides

AM

260, 261

  Anemone vulgaris

AM

260, 261

  Batrachium circinatum

NM

62

  Batrachium peltatum

NM

62

  Caltha palustris

NM

62

AM+NM

260, 261

  Clematis stans

AM

636

  Clematis vitalba

AM

368

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Consolida ambigua

AM

260, 261

  Corydalis lutea

NM

260, 261

  Corydalis solida

NM

260, 261

  Fumaria officinalis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Helleborus foetidus

AM

260, 261

  Myosurus minimus

AM

260, 261

  Pulsatilla patens

AM

408

  Pulsatilla pratensis

AM

408

  Pulsatilla vulgaris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus acris

AM

194, 456, 586, 260, 261

  Ranunculus acris ssp. pumilus

AM

503

  Ranunculus adoneus

AM

416, 519

  Ranunculus auricomus

AM

586

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus biternatus

AM

560

  Ranunculus bulbosus

AM

456, 260, 261

  Ranunculus crassipes

AM

342

  Ranunculus ficaria

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus flammula

AM

62

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus fluitans

NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus lingua

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus nemorosus

AM

586

  Ranunculus paludosus

AM

260, 261

  Ranunculus repens

AM+NM

260, 261

  Ranunculus reptans × flammula

AM

260, 261

  Ranunculus sardous

AM

260, 261

  Ranunculus sceleratus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Thalictrum minus

AM

260, 261

  Trollius europaeus

AM

194, 503, 260, 261

 Proteaceae

  Banksia aricifolia

Weak AM

454

  Conospermum longifolium

AM

67

  Conospermum taxifolium

AM

67

  Lomatia hirsute

NM

207

  Grevillea robusta

NM

326

  Telopea speciosissima

AM

67

 Buxaceae

  Buxus sempervirens

AM

260, 261

 Gunneraceae

  Gunnera petaloidea

AM

326

 Dilleniaceae

  Hibbertia serpyllifolia

AM

67

 Droseraceae

  Drosera anglica

NM

326, 260, 261

  Drosera intermedia

AM

212

NM

260, 261

  Drosera rotundifolia

AM

140

AM+NM

260, 261

 Frankeniaceae

  Frankenia laevis

NM

260, 261

  Frankenia plicata

Weak AM

438

 Tamaricaceae

  Tamarix chinensis

AM

620

  Tamarix gallica

AM

368

 Plumbaginaceae

  Armeria maritime

AM

277

AM+NM

260, 261

  Armeria maritima ssp. halleri

AM

456

  Limonium vulgare

AM+NM

260, 261

 Polygonaceae

  Bistorta vivipara

AM

194

  Coccoloba uvifera

ECM

326

  Coccoloba warmingii

AM

31

  Fagopyrum esculentum

NM

260, 261

  Fallopia convolvulus

NM

260, 261

  Oxyria digyna

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum amphibium

Facultative AM

62, 626

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum aviculare

NM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygonum bistorta

NM

594

AM

260, 261

  Polygonum capitatum

ECM+weak AM

326

  Polygonum cespitosum

AM

140

  Polygonum cuspidatum

AM

636

NM

643

  Polygonum hydropiper

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum lapathifolium

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum lapathifoliumssp. pallidum

NM

307

  Polygonum longisetum

NM

643

  Polygonum maritimum

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum mite

NM

260, 261

  Polygonum pesicaria

Weak AM

626

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygonum statice

AM

343

  Polygonum viviparum

ECM

594

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Polygonum weyrichii

ECM

587

  Polygonum weyrichii var. alpinum

NM

636

  Rumex acetosa

AM

194, 294, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rumex acetosella

NM

207, 456

  Rumex acetosella agg.

NM

260, 261

  Rumex alpinus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rumex altissimus

AM

140

  Rumex conglomeratus

NM

260, 261

  Rumex crispus

NM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rumex hastatus

AM

343

  Rumex hydrolapathum

NM

62

  Rumex japonicus

NM

643

  Rumex longifolius

Weak AM

194

  Rumex obtusifolius

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rumex palustris

NM

260, 261

  Rumex scutatus

NM

260, 261

  Ruprechtia laxiflora

NM

651

 Caryophyllaceae

  Agrostemma githago

NM

260, 261

  Arenaria serpyllifolia

NM

260, 261

  Cerastium alpinum

NM

260, 261

  Cerastium arcticum

NM

260, 261

  Cerastium arvense

AM

456

NM

260, 261

  Cerastium cerastoides

NM

260, 261

  Cerastium fontanum

AM

194

NM

456

  Cerastium fontanum ssp.fontanum

AM

342

  Cerastium fontanum ssp. glabrescens

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cerastium glomeratum

NM

560

  Cerastium holosteoides var. hallaisanense

NM

643

  Cerastium semidecandrum

NM

260, 261

  Colobanthus apetalus var.alpinus

AM

342

  Colobanthus kerguelensis

NM

560

  Colobanthus muscoides

NM

342

  Dianthus carthusianorum

AM

456

NM

260, 261

  Dianthus caryophyllus

NM

554

  Dianthus deltoides

NM

260, 261

  Dianthus gratianopolitanus

NM

260, 261

  Gypsophila fastigiata

NM

456

  Honkenya peploides

NM

260, 261

  Lychnis flos-cuculi

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lychnis viscaria

NM

260, 261

  Minuartia hybrida

AM

260, 261

  Minuartia verna

NM

260, 261

  Moehringia trinervia

NM

260, 261

  Myosoton aquaticum

NM

260, 261

  Polycarpaea corymbosa

AM

336

  Sagina apetala

NM

260, 261

  Sagina procumbens

NM

260, 261

  Sagina subulata

NM

260, 261

  Saponaria officinalis

NM

260, 261

  Scleranthus annuus

NM

260, 261

  Silene acaulis

AM

594

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Silene alba

NM

260, 261

  Silene colorata ssp. canescens

AM

368

  Silene dioica

Weak AM

194

NM

260, 261

  Silene maritima

NM

260, 261

  Silene nutans

NM

260, 261

  Silene otites

AM

260, 261

  Silene vulgaris

NM

456, 260, 261

  Schiedea spergulina

AM

326

  Spergula arvensis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Spergularia marina

AM or NM

260, 261

  Spergularia media

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stellaria alsine

NM

260, 261

  Stellaria graminea

NM

260, 261

  Stellaria holostea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stellaria media

AM

294

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stellaria media ssp.media

AM

342

  Stellaria nemorum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stellaria pallida

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stellaria palustris

NM

260, 261

  Stellaria parviflora

NM

342

 Amaranthaceae

  Achyranthes aspera

NM

422

AM

343

  Achyranthes fauriei

NM

643

  Achyranthes splendens

NM

326

  Amaranthus caudatus

AM

33

  Amaranthus lividus

AM

294

  Amaranthus retroflexus

NM

260, 261

  Amaranthus spinosus

NM

422

AM

343

  Amaranthus tricolor

AM

33

  Amaranthus viridis

AM

343

  Atriplex barclayana

Weak AM

112

  Atriplex canescens

AM

57

  Atriplex glabriuscula

NM

260, 261

  Atriplex halimus

NM

368

  Atriplex hortensis

NM

260, 261

  Atriplex julacea

AM

543

  Atriplex limbata

NM

438

  Atriplex littoralis

AM

260, 261

  Atriplex patula

AM

260, 261

  Atriplex prostrata

NM

260, 261

  Atriplex semibaccata

NM

326

  Beta vulgaris

AM

260, 261

  Celosia cristata

AM

33

  Chenopodium album

NM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Chenopodium ambrosioides

AM

343

  Chenopodium bonus-henricus

NM

260, 261

  Chenopodium glaucum

NM

260, 261

  Chenopodium murale

NM

326

  Chenopodium rubrum

NM

260, 261

  Enchylaena tomentosa

NM

438

  Gomphrena globosa

AM

33

  Halimione portulacoides

AM+NM

260, 261

  Nototrichium sandwicense

NM

326

  Ptilotus latifolius

NM

438

  Ptilotus obovatus var. obovatus

NM

438

  Ptilotus sessilifolius

NM

438

  Salicornia europaea

AM

277

AM+NM

260, 261

  Salsola kali

NM

19, 300, 260, 261

AM+NM

438

  Sclerolaena diacantha

AM

438

  Sclerolaena holtiana

NM

438

  Suaeda glauca

AM

620

  Suaeda maritima

AM

533

AM+NM

260, 261

  Suaeda vera

AM+NM

260, 261

 Aizoaceae

  Cheredospsis purpurea

NM

417

  Delosperma herbium

Falcutative AM

417

  Sesuvium portulacastrum

NM

326

AM

143

  Tetragonia tetragonioides

AM

326

 Phytolaccaceae

  Stegnosperma halimifolia

AM

112

 Nyctaginaceae

  Abronia maritima

Falcutative AM

543

  Abronia umbellata

AM

543

  Boerhavia repens

NM

326

  Bougainvillea spectabilis

NM

326, 651

  Mirabilis jalapa

NM

326

  Neea sp.

ECM

656

  Pisonia sp.

ECM

656

  Pisonia umbellifera

NM

326

 Cactaceae

  Chamacereus sylvestris

NM

417

  Cochemia poselgeri

AM

112

  Coryphanta radians

Weak AM

103

  Escontria chiotilla

Weak AM

103

  Ferocactus acanthodes

AM

151

  Ferocactus flavovirens

Weak AM

103

  Ferocactus latispinus

Weak AM

103

  Ferocactus peninsulae

AM

112

  Lemaireocereus thurberi

Weak AM

112

  Lophocereus schottii

AM

112

  Machaerocereus gummosus

Weak AM

112

  Mammilaria carnea

Weak AM

103

  Mammilaria dioica

Weak AM

112

  Mamillaria elongata

NM

417

  Myrtillocactus geometrizans

Weak AM

103

  Neobuxbaumia tetetzo

Weak AM

103

  Nopalea karwinskiana

AM

20

  Opuntia cholla

AM

112

  Opuntia excelsa

AM

20

  Opuntia ficus-indica

AM

151

  Opuntia lindsayi

AM

112

  Opuntia pilifera

AM

103

  Opuntia puberula

AM

20

  Opuntia streptacantha

AM

103

  Opuntia stricta var. dillenii

AM

143

  Opuntia tuna

NM

417

  Pachycereus pectin-aboriginum

AM

494

  Pachycereus pringlei

Weak AM

112

  Selenicereus macdonaldiae

AM

417

  Stenocereus queretaroensis

AM

463, 464

  Stenocereus stellatus

Weak AM

103

 Portulacaceae

  Lyallia kerguelensis

NM

560

  Montia fontanassp.fontana

NM

342

  Montia perfoliata

NM

207

  Montia sibirica

AM

260, 261

  Portulaca intraterranea

NM

438

  Portulaca lutea

NM

326

  Portulaca oleracea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Portulaca sclerocarpa

NM

326

 Olacaceae

  Coula edulis

AM

445

  Ongokea gore

AM

445

  Strombosis grandifolia

AM

445

 Loranthaceae

  Viscum album

NM

260, 261

 Santalaceae

  Santalum ellipticum

NM

326

  Santalum paniculatum

AM

326

  Thesium alpinum

NM

456

  Thesium humifusum

NM

260, 261

 Loasaceae

  Caiophora sylvestris

NM

207

  Loasa berghii

NM

207

 Cornaceae

  Cornus sanguinea

AM+NM

260, 261

 Balsaminaceae

  Impatiens capensis

AM

140

  Impatiens glandulifera

AM+NM

260, 261

  Impatiens noli-tangere

AM+NM

260, 261

  Impatiens parviflora

AM+NM

260, 261

  Impatiens walleriana

AM

322

 Tetrameristaceae

  Tetramerista glabra

AM

568

 Polemoniaceae

  Polemonium caeruleum

AM

260, 261

 Fouquieriaceae

  Fouquieria digueti

AM

112

 Theaceae

  Pyrenaria cheliensis

AM

422

 Ebenaceae

  Diospyros nigrocartex

AM

422, 655

 Theophrastaceae

  Jacquinia pungens

AM

20

 Primulaceae

  Anagallis arvensis

AM

472, 260, 261

  Anagallis tenella

AM

260, 261

  Asterolinum stellatum

AM

472

  Cyclamen hederifolium

AM

260, 261

  Glaux maritima

AM

260, 261

  Hottonia palustris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lysimachia japonica

AM

643

  Lysimachia nemorum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lysimachia nummularia

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lysimachia terrestris

AM

140

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lysimachia thyrsiflora

NM

62

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lysimachia vulgaris

AM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Primula elatior

AM

260, 261

  Primula farinosa

AM

260, 261

  Primula veris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Primula vulgaris

AM

260, 261

  Samolus valerandi

AM

368, 260, 261

  Trientalis europaea

AM

501

AM+NM

260, 261

 Myrsinaceae

  Ardisia crenata

AM

87

  Ardisia tenera

AM

422, 655

  Measa indica

AM

422

  Myrsine alyxifolia

AM

326

  Rapanea ferruginea

AM

31

 Styracaceae

  Strichinus brasiliensis

AM

651

 Diapensiaceae

  Diapensia lapponica

ERM

260, 261

 Lecythidaceae

  Barringtonia macrostachya

AM

655

  Barringtonia racemosa

AM

655

  Cariniana estrellensis

AM

651

 Sapotaceae

  Aningeria adolfi-friedericii

AM

637, 638

  Aningeria robusta

AM

445

  Argania spinosa

AM

434

  Autranella congolensis

AM

445

  Baillonella toxisperma

AM

445

  Gambeya africana

AM

445

  Omphalocarpum procerum

AM

445

  Palaquium gutta

AM

568

 Actinidiaceae

  Actinidia deliciosa

AM

523

 Clethraceae

  Clethra barbinervis

AM

335

 Ericaceae

  Andromeda polifolia

ERM

260, 261

  Arbutus menziesii

ABM

374

ECM

375

  Arbutus unedo

ABM

200, 238, 421, 368, 472, 260, 261

  Arctostaphylos alpinus

ABM

594

ERM

260, 261

  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

ABM

259, 507

M(endo)+ERM+ABM+ECM+ EEM

260, 261

  Calluna vulgaris

ERM

72, 238, 299, 260, 261

  Cassiope tetragona

ERM

594

  Cavendishia capitulata

ERM

474

  Cavendishia melastomoides

ERM

474

  Daboecia cantabrica

ERM

260, 261

  Disterigma humboldtii

ERM

474

  Empetrum nigrum

ERM

594, 260, 261

  Erica arborea

ERM

368

  Erica cinerea

ERM

99, 260, 261

  Erica erigena

ERM

260, 261

  Erica mackaiana

ERM

260, 261

  Ericamultiflora

ERM

472

  Erica tetralix

ERM

260, 261

  Erica vagans

ERM

260, 261

  Gaultheria erecta

ERM

474

  Gaultheria procumbens

ERM

238

  Gaultheria shallon

ERM

22, 639

  Gonocalyx costaricense

ERM

474

  Kalmia latifolia

ERM

238

  Ledum palustre

ERM

260, 261

  Ledum palustre ssp. decumbens

ERM

594

  Ledum palustre ssp. groenlandicum

ERM

594

  Leucopogon parviflorus

ERM

401

  Leucothoe fontanesiana

ERM

238

  Loiseleuria procumbens

ERM

594, 260, 261

  Oxydendrum arboreum

ERM

238

  Pernettya mucronata

ERM

207

  Phyllodoce caerulea

ERM

260, 261

  Pieris floribunda

ERM

238, 555

  Rhododendron brachycarpum

ERM

154

  Rhododendron calendulaceum

ERM

238

  Rhododendron carolinianum

ERM

238

  Rhododendron catawbiense

ERM

238

  Rhododendron maximum

ERM

238

  Rhododendron mucronulatum

ERM

238

  Rhododendron obtusum

ERM

601

  Rhododendron ponticum

ERM

260, 261

  Sphyospermum buxifolium

ERM

474

  Sphyospermum cordifolium

ERM

474

  Vaccinium angustifolium

ERM

157

  Vaccinium calycinum

ERM+AM

325, 326

  Vaccinium corymbosum

ERM

238, 645

  Vaccinium dentatum

ERM+AM

325, 326

  Vaccinium macrocarpon

ERM

99, 238, 260, 261

  Vaccinium myrtillus

ERM

72, 260, 261

  Vaccinium oxycoccos

ERM

260, 261

  Vaccinium reticulatum

ERM+weak AM

326

ERM+AM

325

  Vaccinium uliginosum

ERM

594, 260, 261

  Vaccinium vitis-idaea

ERM

594, 260, 261

  Woollsia pungens

ERM

401

 Ericaceae “Pyrolaceae”

  Moneses uniflora

EEM+M(endo)

260, 261

  Orthilia secunda

EEM+M(endo)

260, 261

  Pyrola media

M(endo)

260, 261

  Pyrola minor

EEM+M(endo)

260, 261

  Pyrola rotundifolia

EEM+M(endo)

260, 261

 Ericaceae (Monotropoideae)

  Monotropa hypopitys

MTM

260, 261

  Monotropa uniflora

MTM

647

  Monotropastrum humile

MTM

384

  Sarcodes sanguinea

ERM + MTM

332

 Ericaceae (Epacridoideae)

  Astroloma conostephioides

ERM

393

  Astroloma humifusum

ERM

393

  Astroloma pinifolium

ERM

393, 394

  Brachyloma daphnoides

AM

67

ERM

393

  Epacris impressa

ERM

393, 394

  Epacris impressa var. grandiflora

ERM

393

  Epacris microphylla

AM

67

ERM

128

  Leucopogon ericoides

ERM

393

  Leucopogon juniperinus

AM

67

  Leucopogon parviflorus

ERM

393, 556

  Lysinema ciliatum

ERM

36

  Styphelia adscendens

ERM

393

  Styphelia tameiameiae

ERM+AM

325, 326

  Woollsia pungens

ERM

127, 312

 Icacinaceae

  Pittosporopsis kerrii

AM

422

 Boraginaceae

  Arnebia hispidisima

AM

567

  Borago officinalis

NM

260, 261

  Bourreria sonorae

AM

112

  Cerastium arvense

NM

207

  Cordia alliodora

AM

20

  Cordia curassavica

Weak AM

103

  Cordia ecalyculata

AM

651

  Cordia trichotoma

AM

651

  Cynoglossum creticum

AM

207

  Cynoglossum lanceolatum

AM

343

  Echium vulgare

AM

260, 261

  Heliotropium anomalum

AM

326

  Heliotropium curassavicum

AM

326

  Heliotropium sp.

AM

567

  Lithospermum arvense

NM

260, 261

  Lithospermum officinale

NM

260, 261

  Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum

AM

260, 261

  Myosotis alpestris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Myosotis arvensis

NM

260, 261

  Myosotis decumbens

Facultative AM

194

  Myosotis discolor

AM

260, 261

  Myosotis laxa ssp. caespitosa

AM

260, 261

  Myosotis palustris

Facultative AM

62

  Myosotis ramosissima

AM+NM

260, 261

  Myosotis scorpioides

AM+NM

260, 261

  Myosotis sylvatica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Omphalalappula concava

NM

438

  Plagiobothrys figuratus

AM

293

  Pulmonaria officinalis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Silene andicola

NM

207

  Stellaria graminea

AM

194

  Stellaria media

AM

207

  Symphytum officinale

AM

260, 261

  Symphytum tuberosum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Tournefortia argentea

AM

326

  Trichodesma zeylanicum

AM

438

 Rubiaceae

  Asperula cynanchica

AM

260, 261

  Borreria articularis

AM

336

  Borreria pusilla

AM

336

  Canthium parvifoliam

AM

422

  Cephalanthus occidentalis

AM

140

  Chesalia curviflora

AM

422, 655

  Coffea arabica cv. guatemala

AM

602

  Coprosma ernodeoides

AM

326

  Coprosma kauensis

AM

326

  Coprosma perpusilla ssp.subantarctica

NM

342

  Declieuxia fruticosa

AM

149

  Duperrea pavettaefolia

AM

655

  Galium album

AM

194, 260, 261

  Galium antarcticum

AM

560

  Galium aparine

NM

207

AM+NM

260, 261

  Galium boreale

AM

260, 261

  Galium cruciata

AM

260, 261

  Galium mollugo

AM

456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Galium odoratum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Galium palustre

AM+NM

260, 261

  Galium saxatile

AM+NM

260, 261

  Galium sp.

AM

140

  Galium uliginosum

NM

260, 261

  Galium verum

AM

260, 261

  Geophila herbacea

AM

422, 655

  Hedyotis costata

AM

422

  Hedyotis elatior

AM

326

  Hedyotis foggiana

AM

326

  Hedyotis terminalis

AM

326

  Lasianthus hookeri

AM

422

  Lasianthus sikkimensis

AM

655

  Lasianthus verticillatus

AM

655

  Metadina trichotoma

AM

655

  Mitragina ciliata

AM

445

  Morinda lucida

AM

422

  Mycetia hirta

AM

655

  Nauclea diederrichii

AM

445

  Neonauclea tsaiana

AM

655

  Nertera granadensis

AM

326

  Oldenlandia aspera

AM

336

  Ophiorrhiza austro-yunnanensis

AM

422

  Paederia scandens

AM

643

  Pausynistalia johimbe

AM

445

  Prismatomeria tetrandra

AM

422

  Psychotria calocarpa

AM

655

  Psychotria henryi

AM

422

  Psychotria siamica

NM

655

  Psychotria sp.

AM

326

  Randia ruglosa

AM

315

  Relbuneum hypocarpium

AM

207

  Relbuneum richardianum

AM

207

  Rubia peregrina

AM

368

AM+ECM

472

ECM

260, 261

  Sherardia arvensis

AM

472

  Vangueria infausta

AM

84, 85

  Vangueria infausta ssp. infausta

AM

221

 Gentianaceae

  Blackstonia perfoliata

AM

368, 472

AM+NM

260, 261

  Centaurium erythraea

AM

472, 260, 261

  Gentiana algida

NM

594

  Gentiana nivalis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Gentiana pneumonanthe

AM+NM

260, 261

  Gentiana verna

AM

561, 260, 261

  Gentianella amarella

AM

260, 261

  Gentianella campestris

AM

194, 260, 261

  Gentianella germanica

AM

456, 260, 261

  Voyria aurantiaca

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

  Voyria caerulea

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

  Voyria corymbosa

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

  Voyria obconica

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

292

  Voyria rosea

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

  Voyria tenuiflora

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

  Voyriella parviflora

Mycoheterotrophy (via AM)

79

 Loganiaceae

  Anthocleista schweinfurthii

AM

445

  Buddleia asiatica

AM

326

 Apocynaceae

  Adenium obesum

AM

623

  Adenium somalense

AM

623

  Allamanda cathartica var.schottii

AM

623

  Allamanda violacea

AM

623

  Alstonia boonei

AM

445

  Alyxia oliviaeformis

AM

326

  Amsonia tabernaemontana

AM

623

  Apocynum cannabinum

AM

623

  Apocynum medium

AM

623

  Aspidosperma parvifolium

NM

548

  Aspidosperma polyneuron

NM

651

  Catharanthus roseus

AM

623

  Dyera costulata

NM

568

  Landolphia heudelottii

NM

47

  Mandevilla sanderei

AM

623

  Nerium oleander

AM

623

  Pachypodium lamerei

AM

623

  Picralima nitida

AM

445

  Plumeria obtuse

AM

623

  Plumeria rubra

AM

623

  Rauwolfia serpentina

AM

623

  Rauwolfia verticillata

AM

623

  Saba senegalensis

NM

47

  Stemmadenia donnell-smithii

AM

244

  Strophanthus capensis

AM

623

  Tabernaemontana australis

AM

651

  Thevetia peruviana

AM

623

  Trachelospermumjasminoides

AM

623

  Vinca major

AM

260, 261

  Vinca minor

AM

623, 260, 261

 Apocynaceae (Asclepiadoideae)

  Asclepias incarnata

AM

58, 140

  Calotropis gigantea

AM

343

  Cynanchum nummularifolium

AM

207

  Periploca graeca

NM

368

  Stapelia glabricaulis

AM

417

 Oleaceae

  Fraxinus excelsior

AM

465, 622

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Fraxinus ornus

AM

368

  Fraxinus oxycarpa

AM

368

  Fraxinus pennsylvanica

AM

28

  Jasminum laurifolium

AM

655

  Jasminum wangii

AM

422

  Ligustrum vulgare

AM

368, 260, 261

  Olea europaea

AM

17, 101

  Olea europaea ssp. cuspidate

AM

637, 638

  Olea europaea ssp. sylvestris

AM

108, 368

  Olea europaea var. oleaster

AM

472

  Phillyrea angustifolia

AM

368, 472

  Phillyrea latifolia

AM

368

 Gesneriaceae

  Corallodiscus flabellatus

AM

343

  Cytrandra longifolia

AM

326

 Pedaliaceae

  Sesamum indicum

AM

612

 Plantaginaceae

  Callitriche hamulata

AM

260, 261

  Littorella uniflora

AM

62, 432, 260, 261

  Plantago coronopus

AM

260, 261

  Plantago drummondii

AM

438

  Plantago lanceolata

AM

194, 307, 446, 456, 260, 261

  Plantago major

AM

49, 368, 260, 261

  Plantago major ssp. intermedia

AM

260, 261

  Plantago maritima

AM

260, 261

  Plantago media

AM

48, 194, 260, 261

  Plantago princeps

AM

326

 Bignoniaceae

  Incarvillea arguta

AM

343

  Jacaranda mimosaefolia

AM

548, 651

  Jacaranda puberula

AM

651

  Oroxylum indicum

AM

655

  Stenolobium stans

AM

548

  Tabebuia chrysotricha

AM

651

  Tabebuia roseo-alba

AM

651

  Tecoma stans

Weak AM

103

AM

112

  Zeyheria tuberculosa

NM

651

 Verbenaceae

  Aegiphila sellowiana

AM

651

  Citharexylum myrianthum

AM

651

  Clerodendron japonicum

AM

422

  Lantana camara

AM

326

  Lippia graveolens

Weak AM

103

  Lippia nodiflora

AM

143

  Tectona grandis

AM

476

  Teucrium flavum

AM

368

  Verbena hastata

AM

140

  Verbena officinalis

AM

260, 261

  Vitex agnus-castus

AM

368

  Vitex montevidensis

AM

651

  Vitex negundo

AM

343

  Vitex rotundifolia

AM

326

  Vitex vestita

AM

655

 Lamiaceae

  Ajuga genevensis

AM

260, 261

  Ajuga pyramidalis

AM

194

  Ajuga reptans

AM

260, 261

  Ballota nigra

NM

260, 261

  Betonica officinalis

AM

212

  Clinopodium gracile

AM

643

  Clinopodium vulgare

AM+NM

260, 261

  Colebrookea oppositifolia

AM

655

  Coleus parviflorus

AM

469

  Coleus × hybridus

AM

322

  Collinsonia canadensis

AM

140

  Elsholtzia blanda

AM

422

  Elsholtzia cypriani

AM

343

  Galeopsis segetum

NM

260, 261

  Galeopsis tetrahit

NM

260, 261

  Glechoma hederacea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Gomphostemma microdon

AM

655

  Hyptis lantiflora

AM

112

  Lamiastrum galeobdolon

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lamium album

AM

260, 261

  Lamium amplexicaule

AM

294, 260, 261

  Lamium purpureum

AM

260, 261

  Lavandula augustifolia

AM

348

  Lavandula officinalis

AM

104

  Lavandula pedunculata

AM

339

  Lavandula spica

AM

39

  Leucas aspera

AM

336

  Lycopus europaeus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Melittis melissophyllum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Mentha aquatica

AM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Mentha arvensis

AM

248

AM+NM

260, 261

  Mentha arvensis ssp. haplocalyx

AM

1

  Mentha cardiaca

AM

1

  Mentha citrata

AM

1

  Mentha piperita

AM

1

AM+NM

260, 261

  Mentha pulegium

AM

260, 261

  Mentha spicata

AM

1

  Mentha viridis

AM

1

  Nepeta cataria

AM

260, 261

  Ocimum basilicum

AM

105, 171, 343

  Origanum vulgare

AM

260, 261

  Paraphlomis javanica

AM

655

  Prunella vulgaris

AM

194, 586

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pycnanthemum tenuifolium

AM

140, 599

  Pycnanthemum virginianum

AM

140

  Rosmarinus officinalis

AM

472

  Salvia azurea

AM

633

  Salvia officinalis

AM

105

  Salvia pratensis

AM

260, 261

  Salvia splendens

AM

322

  Salvia verbenaca

AM

260, 261

  Scutellaria galericulata

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stachys × ambigua

AM

260, 261

  Stachys maritima

AM

368

  Stachys officinalis

AM

260, 261

  Stachys palustris

AM

260, 261

  Stachys recta var. psammophila

NM

368

  Stachys sylvatica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Stenogyne purpurea

AM

326

  Teucrium chamaedrys

AM

260, 261

  Teucrium fruticans

AM

348, 472

  Teucrium scordium

AM

260, 261

  Teucrium scordonia

AM

260, 261

  Thymus mastichina

AM

339

  Thymus polytrichus ssp. britannicus

AM

630

  Thymus pulegioides

AM

456

  Thymus serpyllum

AM

456, 260, 261

  Thymus vulgaris

AM

105, 583

  Thymus zygis

AM

339

 Acanthaceae

  Barleria cristata

AM

343

  Carlowrightia californica

AM

112

  Justicia procumbens var. leucantha

AM

643

  Phlogacanthus curviflorus

AM

655

  Pseudoranthemum palatiferum

AM

422, 655

  Ruellia peninsularis

AM

112

 Scrophulariaceae

  Antirrhinum majus

AM

74

  Bartsia alpina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Buddleja davidii

NM

260, 261

  Calceolaria crenatiflora

AM

207

  Calceolaria polyrrhiza

AM

207

  Castilleja arvensis

NM

326

  Chaenorhinum minus

NM

260, 261

  Cymbalaria muralis

AM

260, 261

  Digitalis purpurea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Eremophila longifolia

Weak AM

438

  Eremophila macdonnellii

Weak AM

438

  Euphrasia minima

NM

260, 261

  Euphrasia officinalis s. l.

NM

260, 261

  Euphrasia stricta

NM

456

  Kickxia spuria

AM

260, 261

  Lamourouxia rhinanthifolia

NM

103

  Linaria repens

AM+NM

260, 261

  Linaria supina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Linaria vulgaris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Melampyrum arvense

NM

260, 261

  Melampyrum cristatum

NM

260, 261

  Melampyrum pretense

NM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Melampyrum sylvaticum

NM

194, 260, 261

  Mimulus guttatus

NM

62

AM

95

  Mimulus ringens

AM

140

  Odontites lutea

AM

368

  Odontites verna

NM

260, 261

  Pedicularis capitata

NM

594

  Pedicularis kanei

NM

594

  Pedicularis langsdorffii

NM

594

  Pedicularis palustris

NM

260, 261

  Pedicularis sylvatica

NM

260, 261

  Pedicularis verticillata

NM

594

  Penstemon cardwellii

Facultative AM

585

  Penstemon frutescens

Facultative AM

587

  Plantago asiatica

AM

643

  Rhinanthus angustifolius

AM

456

NM

260, 261

  Rhinanthus minor

Weak AM

194

  Scrophularia auriculata

AM

260, 261

  Scrophularia nodosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Scrophularia umbrosa

NM

260, 261

  Scrophularia vernalis

NM

260, 261

  Verbascum lychnitis

AM

260, 261

  Verbascum nigrum

AM

260, 261

  Verbascum thapsus

AM

207, 260, 261

  Veronica agrestis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Veronica alpina

AM

260, 261

  Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Facultative AM

62

AM

260, 261

  Veronica arvensis

AM

643, 260, 261

  Veronica beccabunga

NM

62, 260, 261

  Veronica chamaedrys

AM

194, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Veronica filiformis

AM

260, 261

  Veronica fruticans

AM

260, 261

  Veronica officinalis

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Veronica peregrina

AM

260, 261

  Veronica persica

AM

643, 260, 261

  Veronica serpyllifolia

AM

194, 260, 261

  Veronica spicata

AM

260, 261

 Lentibulariaceae

  Pinguicula alpine

NM

260, 261

  Pinguicula vulgaris

NM

260, 261

 Convolvulaceae

  Calystegia sepium

AM

260, 261

  Calystegia soldanella

NM

368

  Convolvulus arvensis

AM

260, 261

  Convolvuluselegantissimus

AM

472

  Convolvulus eyreanus

AM

438

  Ipomoea arborescens

Weak AM

103

  Ipomoea batatas

AM

455

  Ipomoea imperati

AM

326

  Ipomoea pes-caprae

AM

64, 65, 144, 326, 336

  Ipomoea stolonifera

Weak AM

143

  Jacquemontia ovalifolia

AM

326

  Jacquemontia reclinata

AM

202

 Solanaceae

  Atropa belladonna

AM

260, 261

  Capsicum annuum

AM

50

  Cestrum intermedium

AM

651

  Datura metal

AM

216

  Datura stramonium

AM

343

  Lycium barbarum

AM

260, 261

  Lycium fremontii

AM

112

  Lycium sandwicense

AM

326

  Lycopersicon esculentum

AM

407

  Nicotiana velutina

AM

438

  Petunia × hybrida

AM

322

  Solanum argenteum

AM

651

  Solanum dulcamara

NM

62

AM

260, 261

  Solanum elipticum

AM

438

  Solanum khasianum

AM

343

  Solanum hindsianum

AM

112

  Solanum nigrum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Solanum surattense

AM

567

  Solanum torvum

NM

422

  Solanum tuberosum

AM

386

 Aquifoliaceae

  Ilex aquifolium

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Ilex paraguariensis

AM

31

  Ilex verticallata

AM

140

 Araliaceae

  Didymopanax angustissimum

AM

31

  Hedera helix

AM

368, 472, 260, 261

  Macropanax dispermus

AM

655

  Panax ginseng

AM

178

  Panax quinquefolius

AM

390

  Pseudopanax laetevirens

AM

207

  Stilbocarpa polaris

NM

342

  Trevesia palmata

NM

422

  Trevesia palmata var. costata

NM

655

 Pittosporaceae

  Pittosporum gayanum

AM

326

 Apiaceae

  Actinotis helianthi

AM

67

  Aegopodium podograria

AM+NM

260, 261

  Aethusa cynapium

AM

260, 261

  Angelica archangelica

AM

260, 261

  Angelica sylvestris

AM

260, 261

  Anthriscus sylvestris

NM

260, 261

  Apium graveolens

AM

490, 260, 261

  Apium nodiflorum

NM

260, 261

  Astrantia major

AM+NM

260, 261

  Azorella macquariensis

AM

342

  Berula erecta

Facultative AM

62

NM

260, 261

  Bupleurum baldense

AM

472

  Bupleurum falcatum

AM

260, 261

  Carum carvi

AM

194, 260, 261

  Chaerophyllum temulentum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Conium maculatum

AM

260, 261

  Conopodium majus

AM

260, 261

  Coriandrum sativum

AM

220

  Daucus carota

AM

171

AM+NM

260, 261

  Echinophora spinosa

AM

368

  Eryngium campestre

AM

260, 261

  Eryngium maritimum

AM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Eryngium paniculatum

AM

207

  Foeniculum vulgare

AM

305

  Heracleum sphondylium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Hydrocotyle bonariensis

AM

143

  Hydrocotyle novae-zeelandiae

AM

342

  Hydrocotyle vulgaris

AM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Myrrhis odorata

AM

260, 261

  Oenanthe aquatica

NM

260, 261

  Oenanthe crocata

NM

260, 261

  Osmorhiza chilensis

AM

207

  Pastinaca sativa

AM

307, 260, 261

  Petroselium crispum

AM

171

NM

260, 261

  Peucedanum ostruthium

AM

260, 261

  Peucedanum palustre

AM

260, 261

  Pimpinella major

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pimpinella saxifraga

AM

194, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Platysace linearifolia

ECM

67

  Sanicula europaea

AM

260, 261

  Scandix pecten-veneris

AM

260, 261

  Seseli libanotis

AM

260, 261

  Seseli tortuosum

AM

368

  Silaum silaus

AM

260, 261

  Sium latifolium

NM

260, 261

  Trachymene glaucifolia

AM

438

 Campanulaceae

  Brighamia insignis

AM

326

  Campanula glomerata

AM

260, 261

  Campanula lasiocarpa

AM

587

  Campanula patula

AM

260, 261

  Campanula persicifolia

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Campanula punctata ssp. hondoensis

AM

636

  Campanula rapunculoides

AM

260, 261

  Campanula rotundifolia

AM

194, 437, 456, 260, 261

  Campanula trachelium

NM

260, 261

  Clermontia fauriei

AM

326

  Cyanea leptostegia

AM

326

  Downingia elegans

AM

293

  Jasione montana

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lobelia cardinalis

AM

140

  Lobelia dortmanna

AM

62, 432, 260, 261

  Lobelia sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Lobelia yuccoides

AM

326

  Phyteuma orbiculare

AM

260, 261

  Phyteuma spicatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pratia nummularia

AM

422

  Trematolobelia kauaiensis

AM

326

 Menyanthaceae

  Menyanthes trifoliata

NM

260, 261

  Nymphoides peltata

NM

260, 261

 Goodeniaceae

  Calogyne sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Dampiera stricta

AM+ECM

67

  Goodenia cycloptera

AM

438

  Goodenia lunata

AM

438

  Goodenia sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Scaevola chamissoniana

AM

326

  Scaevola gaudichaudii

AM

326

  Scaevola parvibarbata

AM

438

  Scaevola procera

AM

326

  Scaevola sericea

AM

326

 Asteraceae

  Achillea millefolium

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Achillea ptarmica

AM

194

NM

260, 261

  Ageratina espinosarum

Weak AM

103

  Ageratum conyzoides

AM

336, 422

  Ambrosia artemisifolia

AM

143

  Anaphalis margaritacea

Facultative AM

585

AM

260, 261

  Angianthus sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Antennaria dioica

AM

194, 260, 261

  Anthemis arvensis

AM

260, 261

  Anthemis tinctoria

AM

260, 261

  Arctium lappa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Arctium minus s. l.

AM

260, 261

  Arnica angustifolia

AM

443

  Arnica montana

AM

194, 269

  Artemisia absinthium

NM

260, 261

  Artemisia californica

AM

646

  Artemisia campestris

AM

260, 261

  Artemisia codonocephala

AM

343

  Artemisia dracunculus

AM

105

  Artemisia ludoviciana

AM

633

  Artemisia maritima

AM+NM

260, 261

  Artemisia princeps

AM

643

  Artemisia tridentata

AM

183

  Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis

AM

552

  Artemisia vulgaris

AM

307, 260, 261

  Aster novi belgii

AM

260, 261

  Aster sericeus

AM

633

  Aster subulatus

AM

326

  Aster tripolium

AM

113, 518, 260, 261

  Baccharis racemosa

AM

207

  Balduina angustifolia

AM

30

  Bebbia juncea

AM

112

  Bellis perennis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Berkheya coddii

AM

597

  Bidens asymmetrica × sandvicensis

AM

227

  Bidens bipinnata

AM

422

  Bidens cosmoides

AM

326

  Bidens frondosa

AM

140, 368

  Bidens pilosa

AM

143, 343, 422

  Bidens sandwicensis

AM

227, 326

  Bidens tripartita

AM

140

AM+NM

260, 261

  Blainvillea acmella

AM

343

  Calendula officinalis

AM

260, 261

  Callistephus chinensis

AM

428

  Carduus acanthoides

AM

307, 260, 261

  Carlina vulgaris

AM

456, 260, 261

  Carthamus tinctorius

AM

94

  Centaurea cyanus

AM

260, 261

  Centaurea jacea

AM

194, 260, 261

  Centaurea maculosa

AM

109, 371

  Centaurea nigra

AM

260, 261

  Centaurea pratensis

AM

260, 261

  Centaurea scabiosa

AM

260, 261

  Centaurea subciliata

AM

368

  Chrysanthemum morifolium

AM

551

  Chrysanthemum segetum

AM

260, 261

  Cicerbita alpina

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cichorium intybus

AM

260, 261

  Cirsium acaule

AM

260, 261

  Cirsium arvense

AM

307, 260, 261

  Cirsium helenioides

AM

260, 261

  Cirsium oleraceum

AM

260, 261

  Cirsium palustre

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cirsium purpuratum

AM

636

  Cirsium setosum

AM

620

  Cirsium vulgare

AM

626

AM+NM

260, 261

  Conyza blinii

AM

343

  Conyza canadensis

AM

326, 343

  Cotula plumose

NM

342, 560

  Crassocephalum crepidioides

AM

422

  Crepis biennis

AM

260, 261

  Crepis capillaris

AM

260, 261

  Crepis paludosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Crepis praemorsa

AM

194

  Crepis setosa

AM

207

  Cynara cardunculus

AM

369

  Dittrichia viscosa

AM

497

  Dubautia ciliolata

AM

326

  Dubautia knudseni

AM

326

  Dubautia plantaginea

AM

326

  Dubautia scabra

AM

326

  Eclipta alba

AM

577

  Emilia sonchifolia

AM

326, 336

  Erechtites hieracifolia

AM

326

  Ericameria diffusa

AM

112

  Erigeron acer

NM

260, 261

  Erigeron annuus

AM

643

  Erigeron bonariensis

AM

643

  Erigeron borealis

AM

260, 261

  Erigeron canadensis

AM

294

AM+NM

260, 261

  Eriophyllum lanatum

AM

293

  Eupatorium cannabinum

AM

260, 261

  Eupatorium coelesticum

AM

422

  Eupatorium maculatum

AM

140

  Eupatorium odoratum

AM

422

  Eupatorium perfoliatum

AM

140

  Eupatorium serotinum

AM

599

  Filaginella uliginosa

AM

194

  Florestina tripteris

AM

143

  Flourensia cernua

AM

137

  Galinsoga ciliata

AM

260, 261

  Galinsoga parviflora

AM

260, 261

  Galinsoga supinum

AM

260, 261

  Galinsoga sylvaticum

AM

260, 261

  Galinsoga uliginosum

AM

260, 261

  Gnaphalium norvegicum

AM

502, 503, 260, 261

  Gnephosis eriocarpa

Weak AM

438

  Gutierrezia sarothrae

AM

492, 493

  Gymnosperma glutinosum

Weak AM

103

  Haplopappus venetus

AM

543

  Helianthus annuus

AM

121, 260, 261

  Helianthus niveus

AM

543

  Helichrysum italicum

AM

368

  Helichrysum sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Helichrysum stoechas

AM

368

  Helipterum sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Hieracium albiflorum

Facultative AM

585

  Hieracium alpinum

AM

260, 261

  Hieracium bifidum

AM

260, 261

  Hieracium lachenalii

AM

260, 261

  Hieracium lactucella

AM

194

  Hieracium laevegatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Hieracium murorum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Hieracium pilosella

AM

270, 456, 260, 261

  Hieracium sagittatum

AM

260, 261

  Hieracium subaundum

AM

260, 261

  Hieracium umbellatum

AM

194, 260, 261

  Hieracium vulgatum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Homogyne alpina

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Hypochaeris radicata

Facultative AM

584, 585, 260, 261

  Hypochoeris achyrophorus

AM

472

  Inula conyza

AM

260, 261

  Inula salicina

AM

260, 261

  Ixeris denticulate

AM

129

  Jaumea carnosa

AM

90

  Lactuca hirsuta

AM

140

  Lactuca sativa

AM

40, 171, 500

  Laggera pterodonta

AM

343

  Lapsana communis

AM

260, 261

  Launaea sarmentosa

AM

336

  Leontodon autumnalis

AM

194, 260, 261

  Leontodon hispidus

AM

260, 261

  Leontodon hispidus ssp. danubialis

AM

456

  Leontodon hispidus ssp. hispidus

AM

456

  Leucanthemum vulgare

AM

194, 260, 261

  Leuceria achillaeifolia

NM

207

  Liatris tenuifolia var. laevigata

Weak AM

30

  Lipochaeta connata

AM

326

  Matricaria maritimessp.inodora

AM

307

  Matricaria matricarioides

AM

260, 261

  Matricaria recutita

AM+NM

260, 261

  Microseris laciniata

AM

293

  Mutisia decurrens

AM

207

  Mutisia spinosa

AM

207

  Mycelis muralis

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Omalotheca norvegica

AM

194

  Onopordum acanthium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Otanthus maritimus

AM

368

  Othonna gregorii

AM+NM

438

  Palafoxia lindenii

AM

144

  Parthenium argentatum

AM

461

  Parthenium hysterophorus

AM

343

  Pectis saturejoides

AM

143

  Petasites albus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Petasites frigidus

NM

594

  Petasites hybridus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Phagnalon rupestre

AM

472

  Picris echioides

AM

260, 261

  Picris hieracioides

AM

260, 261

  Piptocarpha axillaris

AM

651

  Pityopsis graminifolia

Weak AM

30

  Pleurophyllum hookeri

AM

342

  Podolepis sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Polycalymma stuartii

AM

438

  Porophyllum numularium

AM

143

  Pulicaria angustifolia

AM

567

  Pulicaria dysenterica

AM

260, 261

  Remya kauaiensis

AM

326

  Rhodanthe floribunda

AM

438

  Rhodanthe moschata

AM

438

  Sagittaria latifolia

AM

58, 626

  Sanvitalia procumbens

AM

260, 261

  Saussurea alpina

AM

260, 261

  Scorzonera humilis

AM

194

  Senecio articulatus

AM

417

  Senecio bicolor

AM

368, 260, 261

  Senecio bracteolatus

AM

207

  Senecio erucifolius

AM

260, 261

  Senecio jacobaea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Senecio pendulus

AM

417

  Senecio praecox

AM

208

NM

103

  Senecio squalidus

AM

260, 261

  Senecio sylvaticus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Senecio viscosus

AM

307, 260, 261

  Senecio vulgaris

AM

625

AM+NM

260, 261

  Serratula tinctoria

AM

212, 260, 261

  Siegesbeckia orientalis

AM

343

  Solidago altissima

AM

643

  Solidago canadensis

AM

298, 626

  Solidago chilenesis

AM

207

  Solidago gigantea

AM

140

  Solidago graminifolia

AM

140

  Solidago litoralis

AM

368

  Solidago sp.

AM

58

  Solidago virgaurea

AM

194, 260, 261

  Sonchus arvensis

AM

302

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sonchus asper

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sonchus oleraceus

AM

343, 643, 260, 261

  Spilanthes callimorpha

AM

422

  Synedrella nudiflora

AM

422

  Tagetes erecta

AM

2, 102, 350

  Tagetes patula

AM

322, 350, 554

  Tagetes tenuifolia

AM

350

  Tanacetum parthenium

NM

260, 261

  Tanacetum vulgare

AM+NM

260, 261

  Taraxacum japonicum

AM

643

  Taraxacum officinale

AM

307

  Tithonia diversifolia

AM

422, 539

  Tragopogon pratensis

AM

260, 261

  Tridax procumbens

AM

336

  Tripleurospermum inodorum

AM

260, 261

  Tripleurospermum maritimum

AM

260, 261

  Tussilago farfara

AM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Verbesina encelioides

AM

326

  Vernonia noveboracensis

AM

140

  Viguiera eriophora

AM

103

  Waitzia sp.

AM+ECM

656

  Wedelia trilobata

AM

326

  Wilkesia gymnoxiphium

AM

326

  Xanthium sibiricum

AM

343

  Xanthocephalum microcephala

AM

137

  Zinnia acerosa

AM

137

  Zinnia elegans

AM

2, 343

 Adoxaceae

  Adoxa moschatellina

NM

260, 261

 Caprifoliaceae

  Carlemannia tetragona

AM

655

  Linnaea borealis

AM

260, 261

  Lonicera caprifolium

AM

260, 261

  Lonicera implexa

AM

368

  Lonicera pericylmenum

AM

260, 261

  Lonicera xylosteum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sambucus nigra

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sambucus racemosa

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Symphoricarpos rivularis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viburnum lantana

AM

260, 261

  Viburnum lentago

AM

140

  Viburnum opulus

AM

260, 261

  Viburnum tinus

AM

368

 Dipsacaceae

  Dipsacus fullonum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Knautia arvensis

AM

194, 260, 261

  Pycnocomon rutifolium

AM

368

  Scabiosa columbaria

AM

260, 261

  Scabiosa ochroleuca

AM

456

  Succisa pratensis

AM

194, 260, 261

 Valerianaceae

  Centranthus ruber

NM

260, 261

  Valeriana dioica

NM

260, 261

  Valeriana laxiflorac

AM

207

  Valeriana officinalis

AM+NM

260, 261

 Hamamelidaceae

  Liquidambar styraciflua

AM

139

 Crassulaceae

  Aeonium decorum

AM

417

  Crassula aquatica

NM

260, 261

  Crassula moschata

NM

342, 560

  Crassula phyturus

AM

417

  Crassula rupestris

AM

417

  Echeveria sedoides

NM

417

  Kalanchoe daigremontana

AM

417

  Sedum acre

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sedum adolfii

AM

417

  Sedum album

NM

260, 261

  Sedum dasyphyllum

NM

260, 261

  Sedum forsteranum

NM

260, 261

  Sedum reflexum

NM

260, 261

  Sedum rosea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sedum telephium

NM

260, 261

  Sempervivum tectorum

M(endo)+NM

260, 261

 Haloragaceae

  Myriophyllum alterniflorum

NM

260, 261

  Proserpinaca palustris

AM

140

 Grossulariaceae

  Ribes alpinum

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Ribes magellanicum

AM

207

  Ribes nigrum

AM

260, 261

  Ribes rubrum

AM

260, 261

  Ribes uva-crispa

AM

260, 261

 Saxifragaceae

  Chrysosplenium alternifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Chrysosplenium oppositifolium

NM

260, 261

  Saxifraga aizoides

AM+NM

260, 261

  Saxifraga granulate

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Saxifraga hieracifolia

NM

594

  Saxifraga hirculus

NM

594

  Saxifraga oppositifolia

AM+NM

260, 261

  Saxifraga stellaris

NM

260, 261

 Vitaceae

  Cayratia japonica

AM

643

  Leea compactiflora

AM

655

  Leea indica

AM

655

  Leea marcophylla

AM

655

  Vitis vinifera

AM

306, 517

 Geraniaceae

  Erodium cicutarium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Erodium crinitum

AM

438

  Geranium carolinianum

AM

643

  Geranium dissectum

AM

260, 261

  Geranium lucidum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Geranium molle

AM+NM

260, 261

  Geranium nodosum

AM

260, 261

  Geranium pratense

AM

260, 261

  Geranium robertianum

AM

262, 472

AM+NM

260, 261

  Geranium sanguineum

NM

260, 261

  Geranium sessiliflorum

AM

207

  Geranium sylvaticum

AM

194, 260, 261

  Pelargonium hortorum

AM

435

 Combretaceae

  Terminalia catappa

AM

326

  Terminalia superba

AM

445

 Onagraceae

  Camissonia californica

AM

543

  Chamerion angustifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Circaea alpina

AM

260, 261

  Circaea lutetiana

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium alsinifolium

AM+NM

260, 261

  Epilobium anagallidifolium

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium angustifolium

Facultative AM

585

  Epilobium brunnescensssp. brunnescens

NM

342

  Epilobium ciliatum

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium coloratum

AM

140

  Epilobium hirsutum

Facultative AM

62

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium lanceolatum

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium montanum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Epilobium obscurum

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium palustre

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium parviflorum

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium pendunculare

AM

342

  Epilobium roseum

AM

260, 261

  Epilobium tetragonum

AM

260, 261

  Ludwigia palustris

AM

140

  Ludwigia prostrata

AM

422

  Oenothera biennis

AM

260, 261

  Oenothera erythrosepala

AM

260, 261

 Lythraceae

  Cuphea carthagenensis

AM

326

  Lafoensia pacari

AM

651

  Lythrum alatum

AM

599

  Lythrum hyssopifolia

NM

260, 261

  Lythrum maritimum

AM

326

  Lythrum salicaria

AM

140, 462, 558, 629

AM+NM

260, 261

 Myrtaceae

  Acca sellowiana

AM

31

  Acmena resa

AM

222

  Angophora hispida

ECM

67

  Baeckea ramosissima

ECM

67

  Campomanesia xanthocarpa

AM

651

  Eucalyptus bosistoana

AM

5

  Eucalyptus camaldulensis

AM+ECM

179

  Eucalyptus citriodora

AM

343

AM+ECM

179

  Eucalyptus cloeziana

AM+ECM

179

  Eucalyptus delegatensis

AM

5

  Eucalyptus dives

AM

5

  Eucalyptus dumosa

Weak AM

5

  Eucalyptus dunnii

AM+ECM

442

  Eucalyptus globoidea

ECM

133

  Eucalyptus globulus

AM

5

ECM

359

  Eucalyptus globulus ssp. bicostata

ECM

12

  Eucalyptus gomphocephala

AM

5

  Eucalyptus grandis

AM+ECM

179

ECM

96

  Eucalyptus haemostoma

ECM

67

  Eucalyptus largiflorens

AM

5

  Eucalyptus macarthurii

AM

5

  Eucalyptus marginata

ECM

365

  Eucalyptus microcorys

ECM

120

  Eucalyptus racemosa

ECM

67

  Eucalyptus regnans

ECM

341

  Eucalyptus sieberi

ECM

133

  Eucalyptus stricta

ECM

67

  Eucalyptus torelliana

ECM

120

  Eucalyptus urophylla

AM

5

AM+ECM

179

  Eucalyptus viminalis

AM

5

AM+ECM

66

  Eucalyptus viridis

AM

5

  Eugenia uniflora

AM

651

  Gomidesia spectabilis

AM

31

  Kunzea capitata

ECM

67

  Leptospermum flavescens

ECM

67

  Leptospermum lanigerum

ECM

67

  Luma apiculata

AM

207

  Melaleuca quinquenervia

AM+ECM

316

  Metrosideros polymorpha

AM

326

  Myrtus communis

AM

368, 382, 472

  Plinia rivularis

Weak AM

651

  Psidium cattleianum

AM

326

  Psidiumguajava

AM

31, 198, 337

  Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

AM

326

  Syzygium firmum

AM

215

  Syzygium guineense

AM

637, 638

  Syzygium jambolanum

AM

548

  Syzygium latilimbum

AM

422

  Syzygium makul

AM

215

  Syzygium operculatum

AM

215

  Syzygium rubicundum

AM

215

  Tristaniopsis whiteana

NM

568

 Melastomataceae

  Clidemia hirta

AM

326

  Graffenrieda emarginata

AM+ECM

266

  Leandra dasytricha

AM

31

  Melastoma affine

NM

422

  Melastoma melabathricum

AM

568

 Krameriaceae

  Krameria paucifolia

AM

112

 Zygophyllaceae

  Balanites aegyptiaca

AM

47

  Fagonia cretica

AM

567

  Larrea tridentata

AM

112, 137

  Morkillia mexicana

Weak AM

103

  Tribulus cistoides

NM

326

  Tribulus terrester

AM

343

  Viscainoa geniculata

AM

112

  Zygophyllum dumosum

AM

268

  Zygophyllum howittii

NM

438

 Parnassiaceae

  Parnassia palustris

AM+NM

260, 261

 Celastraceae

  Euonymus europaeus

AM

260, 261

  Maytenus boaria

AM

207

  Maytenus chubutensis

AM

207

  Maytenus magellanica

AM

207

  Maytenus phyllantoides

AM

112

 Humiriaceae

  Sacoglottis gabonensis

AM

445

 Pandaceae

  Panda oleosa

AM

445

 Rhizophoraceae

  Combretocapus rotundatus

NM

568

  Poga oleosa

AM

445

 Linaceae

  Linum bienne

AM

472

  Linum catharticum

AM

456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Linum perenne ssp. anglicum

NM

260, 261

  Linum strictum

AM

472

  Linum trigynum

AM

472

  Linum usitatissimum

AM

171, 180

AM+NM

260, 261

 Erythroxylaceae

  Erythroxylon compactum

NM

103

 Euphorbiaceae

  Acalypha acmophylla

AM

343

  Actinostemon concolor

AM

651

  Adelia virgata

AM

112

  Alchornea cordifolia

AM

445

  Alchornea tiliaefolia

AM

422, 655

  Aleurites moluccana

AM

326

  Amperea xiphoclada

ECM

67

  Baccaurea ramiflora

AM

422, 655

  Breynia fruticosa

AM

422

  Celaenodendron mexicanum

AM

20

  Chamaesyce atrococca

AM

326

  Chamaesyce celastroides

AM

326

  Chamaesyce degeneri

AM

326

  Chamaesyce hypericifolia

AM

326

  Cleidion bracteosum

AM

422

  Cleidion brevipetiolatum

AM

655

  Cleistanthus sumatranus

AM

422

NM

655

  Croton ciliato-glanduliferus

Weak AM

103

  Croton floribundus

AM

651

  Croton kongensis

AM

422

  Croton machrostachyus

AM

637, 638

  Croton punctatus

AM

143

  Croton urucurana

AM

651

  Ditaxis lanceolata

AM

112

  Drypetes gossweileri

AM

445

  Drypetes hoaensis

NM

655

  Epiprinus silhetianus

NM

655

  Euphorbia amygdaloides

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia cyparissias

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia dulcis

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia esula

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia gatbergensis

AM

417

  Euphorbia helioscopia

AM+NM

260, 261

  Euphorbia heterophylla

AM

343

  Euphorbia hirta

AM

216, 343

Facultative AM

422

  Euphorbia lathyrus

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia paralias

AM

260, 261

  Euphorbia parliramulosa

AM

417

  Euphorbia peplis

AM

368

  Euphorbia peplus

AM

472

AM+NM

260, 261

  Euphorbia royleana

AM

343

  Euphorbia tannensis

AM

438

  Euphorbia thymifolia

AM

343

  Glochidion assamicum

NM

655

  Hevea brasiliensis

AM

288, 526, 527

  Hieronyma alchorneoides

AM

31

  Jatropha cinerea

AM

112

  Jatropha cuneata

AM

112

  Macaranga denticulata

AM

422, 648

  Macaranga indica

AM

655

  Macaranga peltata

AM

315

  Manihot esculanta

AM

252

  Mercurialis annua

AM

260, 261

  Mercurialis perennis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pedilanthus cymbiferus

NM

103

AM

112

  Pedilanthus macrocarpus

AM

112

  Phyllanthus asteranthus

AM

422

  Phyllanthus lacunarius

AM

438

  Phyllanthus niruri

AM

577

  Phyllanthus urinaria

AM

343

  Ricinodendron heudelotii

AM

445

  Ricinus communis

AM

318

  Sauropus androgynus

AM

253

  Sebastiania commersoniana

AM

651

  Uapaca acuminata

AM+ECM

445

  Uapaca guineense

ECM

52, 445

  Uapaca heudelotti

AM

52

  Uapaca staudtii

ECM+AM

413

ECM

445

  Uapaca vanhouttei

ECM

445

 Violaceae

  Viola arvensis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola calaminaria

AM

588

  Viola canina

AM

269

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola hirta

AM

260, 261

  Viola kitaibeliana

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola lutea

AM

260, 261

  Viola maculata

AM

207

  Viola odorata

AM

260, 261

  Viola palustris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola reichenbachiana

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola riviniana

AM

260, 261

  Viola rupestris

AM

260, 261

  Viola tricolor

AM

194, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Viola wailenalenae

AM

326

  Viola × wittrockiana

AM

322

 Salicaceae

  Casearia sylvestris

AM

31, 651

  Populus alba

ECM+AM

368

ECM+NM

260, 261

  Populus balsamifera

ECM

470

  Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa

ECM

271

  Populus × canadensis

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Populus canescens

ECM

260, 261

  Populus deltoides

AM

140

  Populus euroamericana

AM+ECM

317

  Populus nigra

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Populus nigra ‘Italica’

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Populus serotina

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Populus tremula

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Populus tremula × tremuloides

ECM

59

  Populus tremuloides

ECM

145, 338

ECM+AM

430

  Populus trichocarpa

ECM

59, 260, 261

  Salix alba

ECM

260, 261

  Salix alba vitellina

ECM

260, 261

  Salix arbuscula

ECM

260, 261

  Salix arctica

ECM

594

  Salix aurita

ECM+NM

260, 261

  Salix babylonica

AM+ECM

316, 260, 261

  Salix caprea

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Salix cinerea

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Salix daphnoides

ECM

260, 261

  Salix fragilis

ECM

260, 261

  Salix gracilistyla

AM

511

  Salix herbacea

ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Salix lapponum

ECM

260, 261

  Salix myrsinites

ECM

260, 261

  Salix nigra

AM

140

  Salix nigricans

ECM+NM

260, 261

  Salix phylicifolia

ECM

260, 261

  Salix polaris

ECM

594

  Salix purpurea

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Salix reinii

ECM

587

  Salix repens

AM

605

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Salix reticulata

ECM

594, 260, 261

  Salix triandra

ECM

260, 261

  Salix viminalis

AM

60

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Xylosma ciliatifolium

AM

651

  Xylosma pseudosalzmannii

AM

651

 Turneraceae

  Turnera ulmifolia

AM

143

 Clusiaceae

  Calophyllum sclerophyllum

AM

568

  Calophyllum soulattri

AM

568

  Clusia minor

AM

474

  Clusia rotundata

AM

474

  Cratoxylum arborescens

AM

568

  Garcinia cowa

NM

655

  Garcinia kola

AM

445

  Garcinia lucida

AM

445

  Garcinia xanthochymus

Facultative AM

422

 Hypericaceae

  Hypericum calycinum

NM

260, 261

  Hypericum hirsutum

NM

260, 261

  Hypericum humifusum

NM

260, 261

  Hypericum maculatum

AM

194, 260, 261

  Hypericum montanum

NM

260, 261

  Hypericum perforatum

AM

409, 260, 261

  Hypericum pulchrum

AM

260, 261

  Hypericum tetrapterum

AM+NM

260, 261

 Elatinaceae

  Elatine hexandra

AM

62

 Ochnaceae

  Lophira alata

AM

445

 Chrysobalanaceae

  Licania platypus

AM

321

 Oxalidaceae

  Oxalis acetosella

AM

598

AM+NM

260, 261

  Oxalis corniculata

AM

294, 643, 260, 261

  Oxalis corymbosa

AM

643

  Oxalis exilis

AM

260, 261

  Oxalis europaea

AM

260, 261

  Oxalis stricta

AM

260, 261

  Oxalis valdiviensis

AM

207

 Cunoniaceae

  Ceratopetalum apetalum

AM

387

ECM

389

 Elaeocarpaceae

  Aristotelia chilensis

AM

207

  Elaeocarpus austro-yunnanensis

AM

422

  Sloanea guianensis

AM

31

 Polygalaceae

  Polygala nicaeensis

AM

368

  Polygala amarella

AM+NM

260, 261

  Polygala calcarea

AM

260, 261

  Polygala serpyllifolia

AM

260, 261

  Polygala vulgaris

AM

194

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Salomonia sp.

Mycoheterotrophy via AM

658

 Fabaceae

  Acacia albida

AM

174

  Acacia ampliceps

AM

477

  Acacia arabica

AM

317

  Acacia auriculiformis

AM

52, 229

  Acacia bonariensis

AM+ECM

211

  Acacia caven

AM

211

  Acacia cochliacantha

Weak AM

103

  Acacia constricta

Weak AM

103

  Acacia eriopoda

AM

477

  Acacia farnesiana

AM

343, 600

Weak AM

103

  Acacia holosericea

ECM

186

  Acacia koa

AM

326, 406

  Acacia leptocarpa

AM

52

  Acacia linifolia

AM

68

ECM+AM

67

  Acacia mangium

ECM

186, 187

AM

52, 257, 520

  Acacia nilotica

AM

473, 538

  Acacia obtusifolia

ECM+AM

67

  Acacia pennatula

AM

18

  Acacia polyphylla

AM

651

  Acacia suaveolens

ECM+AM

67

  Acacia tortilis

AM

567

  Acacia ulicifolia

ECM+AM

67

  Adenanthera pavonina

AM

52

  Aeschynomene indica

AM

546

  Afzelia africana

NM

47

ECM

45, 52

  Afzelia bipidensis

ECM+AM

413, 445

  Afzelia pachyloba

AM+ECM

445

  Afzelia quanzensis

ECM

418

  Albizia corniculata

AM

655

  Albizia falcataria

AM

14

  Albizia ferruginea

AM

52, 256

  Albizia gummifera

AM

637, 638

  Albizia hassleri

AM

651

  Albizia kalkora

AM

343

  Albizia lebbeck

AM

52, 216, 477, 538, 548

  Albizia schimperiana

AM

637, 638

  Alysicarpus regosus

AM

336

  Alysicarpus vaginalis

AM

343

  Amorpha crenulata

AM

202

  Amphimas ferrugineus

AM

445

  Amphimas pterocarpoides

AM

52, 445

  Anadenanthera colubrina

AM

452, 651

  Anadenanthera falcata

AM

548

  Anadenanthera macrocarpa

AM

651

  Anadenanthera peregrina

AM

528, 593

  Anthonotha fragrans

ECM

52

ECM+AM

413, 445

  Anthonotha macrophylla

ECM

52, 413, 445

  Anthyllis cytisoides

AM

170, 234, 583

  Anthyllis tetraphylla

AM

472

  Anthyllis vulneraria

AM

456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Aphanocalyx cynometroides

ECM

413

  Arachis hypogaea

AM

111

  Astragalus alpinus

NM

594

  Astragalus applegatei

AM

55

  Astragalus glycyphyllos

NM

260, 261

  Atylosia scarabaeoides

AM

343

  Baphia nitida

AM

52

  Bauhinia forficata

AM

211, 651

  Berlinia bracteosa

ECM

445

  Berlinia confusa

ECM

52, 445

  Bossiaea obcordata

AM

67

  Brachystegia cynometroides

ECM

445

  Brachystegia eurycoma

ECM

445

  Brachystegia leonensis

ECM

52

  Brachystegia zenkeri

ECM

445

  Bussea occidentalis

AM

52

  Caesalpinia eriostachys

AM

20

  Caesalpinia ferrea

AM

548

  Caesalpinia gilliesii

AM

211

  Caesalpinia pannosa

AM

112

  Caesalpinia peltophoroides

AM

548

  Cajanus cajan

AM

172, 624

  Calliandra eriophylla

Weak AM

103

  Calliandra parvifolia

Weak AM+ ECM

211

  Calliandra selloi

AM

211

  Calliandra tweedii

AM+ ECM

211

  Calopogonium caeruleum

AM

289

  Calopogonium mucunoides

AM

439

  Canavalia rosea

AM

144, 336

  Cassia grandis

AM

548

  Cassia siamea

AM

52, 230, 251

  Cassia spectabilis

AM

258

  Castanospermum australe

AM

4

  Cathormion polyanthum

AM

211

  Centrolobium tomentosum

AM

372, 651

  Ceratonia siliqua

AM

147

  Cercidium praecox

AM

112

  Chamaecrista chamaecristoides

AM

143

  Cicer arietinum

AM

124, 125

  Colophospermum mopane

AM

477

  Copaifera langsdorffii

AM

548, 651

  Cordyla pinnata

AM

47

  Coronilla emerus ssp. emeroides

AM

368

  Coronilla scorpioides

AM

472

  Coronilla varia

AM

159

NM

260, 261

  Crotalaria burhia

AM

567

  Crotalaria incana

AM

143

  Crotalaria medicaginea

AM

343, 567

  Cullen discolor

AM

438

  Cullen pallida

AM

438

  Cylicodiscus gabunensis

AM

445

  Cynometra alexandri

AM

591

  Cynometra leonensis

AM

52

  Cynometra sanagaensis

AM

445

  Cytisus scoparius

AM

260, 261

  Dalbergia obtusifolia

AM

655

  Dalbergia sissoo

AM

317, 473

  Daniella ogea

AM

445

  Daviesia corymbosa

AM

67

  Desmanthus illinoensis

AM

541

  Desmodium heterophyllum

AM

355

  Desmodium microphyllum

AM

343

  Desmodium oxyphyllum

AM

643

  Desmodium paniculatum

AM

541

  Detarium macrocarpum

AM

445

  Dialium guineense

AM

47, 52

  Dicorynia guianensis

AM

71, 161

  Didelotia africana

ECM+Weak AM

413

ECM

445

  Didelotia letouzeyi

ECM

413, 445

  Dillwyinia parvifolia var.tricopoda

ECM+AM

67

  Dillwynia retorta

ECM

67

AM

589

  Diphysa robinoides

AM

143

  Dipteryx panamensis

AM

321

  Distemonanthus benthamianus

AM

445

  Dorycnium hirsutum

NM

368

  Enterolobium contortisiliquum

AM

211, 651

  Enterolobium cyclocarpum

AM

143, 256

  Eperua falcata

AM

161

  Erythrina berteroana

AM

142

  Erythrina crista-galli

AM

211

  Erythrina poeppigiana

AM

148

  Erythrophleum ivorense

AM

52, 445

  Eysenhardtia polystachya

Weak AM

103

  Faidherbia albida

AM

46

  Genista hirsute

AM

339

  Genista tinctoria

AM

260, 261

  Geoffroea decorticians

AM

211

  Gilbertiodendron brachystegioides

ECM

445

  Gilbertiodendron dewevrei

ECM+AM

591

ECM

445

  Gilbertiodendron preussi

ECM

52

  Gleditsia amorphoides

Weak AM+ ECM

211

  Gliricidia sepium

AM

52, 199, 258

  Glyceria maxima

NM

62

  Glycine max

AM

37

  Gompholobiumgrandiflorum

AM

67

  Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum

AM

445

  Guibourtia tessmannii

AM

445

  Havardia albicans

AM

18

  Hedysarum confertum

AM

496

  Hedysarum coronarium

AM

351

  Hedysarum spinosissimum

AM

496

  Hippocrepis comosa

AM

260, 261

  Hippocrepis unisiliquosa

AM

472

  Holocalyx balansae

Weak AM

651

  Hymenaea courbaril

NM

548

  Indigofera brevidens

Weak AM

438

  Indigofera cordifolia

AM

567

  Indigofera linifolia

AM

567

  Inga leiocalycina

AM

627

  Inga marginata

AM

31

  Inga sessilis

AM

651

  Inga striata

AM

651

  Inga urguuensis

AM

211

  Intsia palembanica

AM+ECM

14

  Julbernardia seretii

ECM+AM

591

ECM

445

  Koompassia malacensis

NM

568

  Kummerowia striata

AM

213

  Lablab purpureusus

AM

640

  Laburnum anagyroides

AM

260, 261

  Lathyrus montanus

AM

260, 261

  Lathyrus japonicus

AM

260, 261

  Lathyrus niger

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lathyus odoratus

AM

260, 261

  Lathyrus pratensis

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lens culinaris

AM

319

  Leucaena leucocephala

AM

18, 52, 254, 326

  Lonchocarpus campestris

AM

651

  Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus

Weak AM

651

  Lonchocarpus nitidus

AM+ ECM

211

  Lotus corniculatus

AM

140, 159, 194, 307, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Lotus glaber

AM

508

  Lotus tenuis

AM

396

  Lotus uliginosus

AM

260, 261

  Lupinus arcticus

NM

594

  Lysiloma candida

AM

112

  Machaerium minutiflorum

AM

651

  Machaerium stipitatum

Weak AM

651

  Macrotyloma uniflorum

AM

453

  Medicago littoralis

AM

368

  Medicago lupulina

AM

260, 261

  Medicago marina

AM

368

  Medicago polymorpha

AM

294, 260, 261

  Medicago sativa

AM

38, 159, 351, 260, 261

  Melilotus alba

AM

260, 261

  Melilotus officinalis

AM

159, 260, 261

  Microberlinia bisulcata

ECM

413

  Mimosa adenantheroides

Weak AM

103

  Mimosa bimucronata

AM

452

  Mimosa biuncifera

Weak AM

103

AM

82

  Mimosa calcicola

Weak AM

103

  Mimosa lacerata

Weak AM

103

  Mimosa luisana

AM

103

  Mimosa polyantha

Weak AM

103

  Mimosa pudic

AM

326

  Mimosa purpusii

Weak AM

103

  Mimosa scabrella

AM

31, 651

  Mimosa texana

Weak AM

103

  Monopetalanthus le-testui

ECM

445

  Monopetalanthus microphyllus

ECM

445

  Mora excelsa

AM

592

  Olneya tesota

AM

112

  Onobrychis viciifolia

AM

260, 261

  Onobrychis sativa

AM

260, 261

  Ononis repens

AM

260, 261

  Ononis spinosa

AM

260, 261

  Ormosia arborea

NM

548

AM

651

  Oxystigma buchholzii

AM

445

  Oxystigma mannii

AM

445

  Oxytropis scammaniana

AM

594

  Pachyelasma tessmannii

AM

445

  Paraberlinia bifoliolata

ECM

445

  Parapiptadenia rigida

AM

211, 452, 651

  Parkia bicolor

AM

52

  Parkia biglobosa

AM

47, 247

  Parkia speciosa

AM

14

  Parkinsonia aculeata

AM

211

  Peltophorum dubium

AM

211

NM

548, 651

  Pentaclethra macrophyll

AM

52, 445

  Phaseolus lunatus

AM

20

  Phaseolus mungo

AM

478

  Phaseolus radiatus

AM

478

  Phaseolus vulgaris

AM

37

  Piptadeniastrum africanum

AM

52, 445

  Plagiosiphon longitubus

AM

445

  Plagiosiphon multijugus

AM

445

  Platycyamus regnellii

AM

548

  Poecilanthe parviflora

AM

211, 651

  Prioria copaifera

AM

592

  Prosopis articulata

AM

112

  Prosopis cineraria

AM

379

  Prosopis glandulose

AM

137

  Prosopis juliflora

AM

76, 175, 567

  Prosopis laevigata

AM

495

  Psoralea bituminosa

AM

472

  Pterocarpus angolensis

AM

419

  Pterocarpus mildbraedii

AM

445

  Pterocarpus soyauxii

AM

445

  Pterogyne nitens

Weak AM

651

  Pueraria phaseoloides

AM

150

  Pultenaea elliptica

ECM+AM

67

  Retama sphaerocarpa

AM

16, 17, 497

  Robinia pseudoacacia

ECM

330

AM+ECM

582, 260, 261

ECM+EEM

86

  Samanea saman

AM

52

  Schizolobium parahyba

AM

548

  Schrankia quadrivalvis

AM

143

  Scorodophloeus zenkeri

AM

445

  Scorpiurus muricatus

AM

472

  Senna corymbosa

AM

211

  Senna macranthera

AM

548, 651

  Senna multijuga

AM

548

  Senna siamea

AM

441

  Senna spectabilis

AM

548

  Sesbania aegyptiaca

AM

231

  Sesbania grandiflora

AM

231

  Sesbania punicea

AM

211

  Sesbania tomentosa

AM

326, 227

  Sophora chrysophylla

AM

326, 406

  Spartium junceum

AM

368

  Strophostyles helvola

AM

596

  Strophostyles umbellata

AM

532

  Stryphnodendron microstachyum

AM

36

  Stylosanthes guvanensis

AM

545

  Stylosanthes scarbaeoidesand

AM

545

  Swainsona phacoides

AM

438

  Tamarindus indica

AM

47, 247, 343

  Tephrosia purpurea

AM

216, 343

  Tephrosia sphaerospora

AM

438

  Tetraberlinia bifoliolata

ECM+Weak AM

413

ECM

445

  Tetraberlinia moreliana

ECM

413

  Tipuana tipu

AM

548

  Toubaouate brevipaniculata

ECM

445

  Trifolium arvense

AM

307

  Trifolium aureum

AM

194

  Trifolium dubium

AM

643, 260, 261

  Trifolium fragiferum

NM

260, 261

  Trifolium glomeratum

AM

260, 261

  Trifolium hybridum

AM

307

AM+NM

260, 261

  Trifolium medium

AM

260, 261

  Trifolium pratense

AM

140, 159, 194, 204, 456

AM+NM

260, 261

  Trifolium repens

AM

140, 194, 283, 643, 260, 261

  Trifolium spadiceum

AM

194

  Trifolium subterraneum

AM

171

AM+NM

260, 261

  Trigonella foenumgraecum

AM

220

  Ulex europaeus

AM

368, 260, 261

  Ulex gallii

NM

260, 261

  Ulex parviflorus

AM

497

  Vicia angustifolia var. segetalis

AM

643

  Vicia cracca

AM

194, 294, 260, 261

  Vicia faba

AM

191

  Vicia nigricans

AM

207

  Vicia hirsute

AM

643, 260, 261

  Vicia sativa

AM

260, 261

  Vicia sepium

AM

194, 260, 261

  Vicia sylvatica

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Vicia tetrasperma

AM

307, 260, 261

  Vicia villosa

AM

140

  Vigna aconitifolius

AM

343

  Vigna luteola

AM

273

  Vigna marina

AM

326, 547

  Vigna mungo

AM

319

  Vigna parkeri

AM

440

  Vigna radiate

AM

377

  Vigna unguiculata

AM

37, 287

  Xylia xylocarpa

AM

315

  Zornia sp.

Weak AM

103

 Rosaceae

  Acaena magellanica

AM

342

NM

560

  Acaena minor

AM

342

  Acaena novae-zelandiae

AM

260, 261

  Acaena ovalifolia

AM

207

  Acaena pinnatifida

AM

207

  Adenostoma fasciculatum

AM+ECM

21

  Agrimonia eupatoria

AM

260, 261

  Alchemilla alpina

AM

80, 194, 260, 261

  Alchemilla glabra

AM

260, 261

  Alchemilla glaucescens

AM

194

  Alchemilla glomerulans

AM

503

  Alchemilla vulagris agg.

AM+NM

260, 261

  Alchemilla xanthochlora

AM

260, 261

  Aphanes arvensis

AM

260, 261

  Cotoneaster integerrimus

AM

260, 261

  Crataegus laevigata

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Crataegus monogyna

ECM

368

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Dryas octopetala

ECM

80, 594

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Duchesnea chrysantha

AM

643

  Filipendula ulmaria

AM+NM

260, 261

  Fragaria chiloensis

AM

207

  Fragaria vesca

AM+NM

260, 261

  Fragaria xananassa

AM

537

  Geum rivale

AM

194

AM+NM

260, 261

  Geum urbanum

AM

260, 261

  Geum virginianum

AM

140

  Hagenia abyssinica

AM

637, 638

  Malus communis

AM

260, 261

  Malus domestica

AM

368

  Malus micromalus

AM

26

  Malus pumila var. domestica

AM

233

  Malus sylvestris

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Osteomeles anthyllidifolia

AM

326

  Ovidia andina

AM

207

  Potentilla anglica

AM

260, 261

  Potentilla anserine

AM

307, 626, 260, 261

  Potentilla argentea

AM

260, 261

  Potentilla cinerea

AM

456

  Potentilla crantzii

AM

194, 260, 261

  Potentilla erecta

AM

194, 586

AM+NM

260, 261

  Potentilla fruticosa

AM

260, 261

  Potentilla hookeriana

AM

443

  Potentilla palustris

AM+NM

260, 261

  Potentilla pulchella

AM

443

  Potentilla reptans

AM

260, 261

  Potentilla sterilis

AM

260, 261

  Potentilla tabernaemontani

AM

260, 261

  Prunus africana

AM

637, 638

  Prunus avium

AM

465

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Prunus cerasifera

AM

73

  Prunus cerasus

ECM

260, 261

  Prunus domestica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Prunus maritima

AM

324

  Prunus padus

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Prunus sellowii

Weak AM

651

  Prunus spinosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pyrus communis

AM

219

  Pyrus pyraster

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Rosa arvensis

AM

260, 261

  Rosa canina

AM

81, 260, 261

  Rosa hybrida

AM

160

  Rosa rubiginosa

AM

207

  Rosa rugosa

AM

324

  Rosa sempervirens

AM

368

  Rubus caesius

AM

260, 261

  Rubus chamaemorus

NM

260, 261

  Rubus fruticosus s. l.

AM

260, 261

  Rubus idaeus

AM

573, 574

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rubus nessensis

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Rubus rufus

AM

422

  Rubus saxatilis

AM

260, 261

  Rubus ulmifolius

AM

368

  Sanguisorba minor

AM

260, 261

  Sanguisorba officinalis

AM

260, 261

  Sibbaldia procumbens

AM

594

NM

260, 261

  Sorbus aria

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Sorbus aucuparia

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Sorbus torminalis

ECM

260, 261

  Spiraea latifolia

AM

140

  Spiraea tomentosa

AM

140

 Rhamnaceae

  Colletia hystrix

AM

207

  Colubrina glabra

AM

112

  Colubrina glandulosa

AM

651

  Colubrina oppositifolia

AM

227

  Condalia globosa

AM

112

  Discaria articulata

AM

207

  Discaria chacaye

AM

207

  Frangula alnus

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Hovenia dulcis

AM

548

  Phylica ericoides

AM

24

  Rhamnus catharticus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rhamnus lycioides

AM

17, 108

  Ventilago calyculata

AM

655

  Zizyphus mauritiana

AM

47, 343, 378, 381, 655

  Zizyphus nummularia

AM

567

  Zizyphus obtusifolia

AM

112

  Ziziphus xylopyrus

AM

380

 Elaeagnaceae

  Elaeagnus commutata

AM

613

  Hippophae rhamnoides

AM

405, 260, 261

  Hippophae tibetana

AM

581

  Shepherdia canadensis

AM

581

 Ulmaceae

  Celtis wightii

AM

422

  Gironniera subaequalis

NM

422

  Trema micrantha

AM

548, 651

  Trema orientalis

AM

445

  Ulmus glabra

AM

260, 261

  Ulmus procera

AM+ECM

260, 261

 Cannabaceae

  Humulus lupulus

AM+NM

260, 261

 Moraceae

  Artocarpus altilis

AM

136

  Brosimum alicastrum

AM

18

  Brosimum lactescens

AM

31

  Broussonetia papyrifera

AM

343

  Ficus cyrtophylla

NM

655

  Ficus guaranitica

AM

651

  Ficus hirta

AM

422

  Ficus hispida

AM

655

  Ficus langkokensis

AM

655

  Milicia excelsa

AM

445

  Milicia regia

AM

279

  Morus alba

AM

475, 535

  Musanga cecropioides

AM

445

  Sorocea bonplandii

Weak AM

651

 Urticaceae

  Boehmeria zollingeriana

AM

422

  Cecropia glaziovii

AM

651

  Cecropia pachystachya

AM

651

  Elatostema parvum

AM

422

  Parietaria judaica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Pipturus albidus

AM

326

  Touchardia latifolia

NM

326

  Urera glabra

AM

326

  Urtica dioica

NM

611

AM+NM

260, 261

  Urtica urens

NM

260, 261

 Cucurbitaceae

  Bryonia dioica

AM

260, 261

  Citrullus lanatus

AM

310, 438

  Ctenolepis cerasiformis

AM

567

  Cucumis callosus

AM

567

  Cucumis sativus

AM

499

  Cucurbita foetidissima

AM

396

  Cucurbita pepo

AM

340

  Mukia maderaspatana

AM

216

 Begoniaceae

  Begonia angustinei

AM

422

  Begonia cathayana

AM

422

  Hillebrandia sandwicensis

AM

326

 Tetramelaceae

  Tetrameles nudiflora

AM

422

 Fagaceae

  Castanea sativa

ECM

260, 261

  Castanopsis borneensis

ECM

267

  Castanopsis indica

NM

422

AM

655

  Fagus sylvatica

ECM

529, 260, 261

  Lithocarpus densiflora

ECM

375

  Lithocarpus leucostachyus

NM

422

  Nothofagus dombeyi

ECM

207

  Quercus alba

ECM

444, 470

  Quercus cerris

ECM

260, 261

  Quercus ilex

ECM

368, 472, 260, 261

  Quercus petraea

ECM

53, 260, 261

  Quercus pubescens

ECM

138

  Quercus robur

ECM

53, 368, 260, 261

  Quercus rubra

ECM

214

 Myricaceae

  Comptonia peregrina

Facultative AM

284

  Myrica cerifera

AM

468

  Myrica faya

AM

326

  Myrica gale

Facultative AM

146

AM+NM

260, 261

  Myrica pensylvanica

NM

324

Facultative AM

284

 Juglandaceae

  Engelhardtia roxburghiana

ECM

267

  Juglans nigra

AM

465

  Juglans regia

AM

177

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

 Betulaceae

  Alnus acuminata

ECM

61

  Alnus cordata

AM

361

  Alnus glutinosa

AM

210

ECM+AM

368

ECM

471

AM+ECM+EEM+NM

260, 261

  Alnus incana

AM

34

AM+ECM

260, 261

  Alnus sinuate

ECM

271

  Alnus tenuifolia

ECM

641

  Betula alleghaniensis

ECM

162, 516

  Betula lenta

ECM

619

  Betula nana

ECM

594, 260, 261

  Betula papyrifera

ECM

303

  Betula pendula

ECM

92, 155

ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Betula pubescens

ECM

370

ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Betula verrucosa

ECM

217

  Carpinus betulus

ECM

529, 260, 261

  Corylus avellana

ECM

367, 529, 260, 261

 Casuarinaceae

  Allocasuarina littoralis

ECM

579

  Casuarina cunninghamiana

Weak AM

485

AM

316

Weak ECM

579

  Casuarina equisetifolia

AM

447, 326, 542, 606

  Casuarina equisetifolia ssp. equisetifolia

ECM

579

 Tropaeolaceae

  Tropaeolum majus

AM

360, 610

 Moringaceae

  Moringa concanensis

AM

450

 Caricaceae

  Carica papaya

AM

360, 595

 Bataceae

  Batis maritime

NM

326

 Resedaceae

  Reseda lutea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Reseda luteola

AM+NM

260, 261

 Capparidaceae

  Atamisquea emarginata

AM

112

  Capparis sandwichiana

NM

326

 Brassicaceae

  Alliaria petiolata

NM

260, 261

  Alyssum montanum

NM

456

  Arabidopsis thaliana

Weak AM+NM

260, 261

  Arabis alpina

NM

260, 261

  Arabis hirsuta

NM

472, 260, 261

  Armoracia rusticana

AM+NM

260, 261

  Barbarea vulgaris

NM

260, 261

  Biscutella laevigata

NM

456

AM

446, 260, 261

  Blennodia pterosperma

NM

438

  Brassica napus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Brassica nigra

NM

83, 260, 261

  Brassica oleracea

AM+NM

260, 261

  Brassica rapa

NM

260, 261

  Cakile maritima

NM

368

AM+NM

260, 261

  Capsella bursa-pastoris

Facultative AM

167

AM

164

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cardamine amara

NM

260, 261

  Cardamine bulbifera

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cardamine concatenata

NM

165

  Cardamine corymbosa

NM

342

  Cardamine flexuosa

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cardamine hirsuta

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cardamine impatiens

NM

260, 261

  Cardamine pratensis

NM

260, 261

  Cardamine trifolia

NM

260, 261

  Cardaminopsis arenosa

AM

456

  Cochlearia anglica

AM+NM

260, 261

  Cochlearia danica

AM

260, 261

  Cochlearia officinalis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Diplotaxis erucoides

AM+NM

260, 261

  Diplotaxis muralis

AM+NM

260, 261

  Erophila verna

NM

260, 261

  Erysimum cheiranthoides

NM

260, 261

  Hesperis matronalis

Facultative AM

167

  Iberis amara

AM

260, 261

  Isatis tinctoria

NM

260, 261

  Lepidium bidentatum

AM

326

  Lepidium phlebopetalum

NM

438

  Lepidium ruderale

NM

260, 261

  Lepidium serra

NM

326

  Matthiola incana

Facultative AM

167

  Nasturtium officinale

NM

260, 261

  Pringlea antiscorbutica

NM

560

  Raphanus raphanistrum

NM

260, 261

  Raphanus sativus

AM+NM

260, 261

  Rorippa amphibia

NM

62

  Rorippa islandica

AM

140

  Rorippa palustris

NM

260, 261

  Sinapis alba

NM

260, 261

  Sisymbrium loeselii

NM

260, 261

  Sisymbrium officinale

AM+NM

260, 261

  Sisymbrium orientale

NM

260, 261

  Thlaspi arvense

NM

260, 261

  Thlaspi caerulescens

AM

488

  Thlaspi montanum

AM

488

  Thlaspi praecox

AM

488, 614

 Thymelaeaceae

  Daphne laureola

AM

260, 261

  Daphne gnidium

AM

368

  Daphne mezereum

AM+NM

260, 261

  Gonystylus bancanus

AM

568

  Pimelea linifolia

AM

67

  Wikstroemia furcata

AM

326

 Bixaceae

  Cochlospermum vitifolium

AM

20

 Cistaceae

  Cistus creticus

ECM

368

  Cistus ladanifer

ECM

339

  Cistus incanus

ECM

368

  Cistus monspeliensis

ECM

368

ECM+AM

472

  Fumana thymifolia

AM

472

  Helianthemum almeriense

EEM+ECM

249

  Helianthemum apenninum

AM+ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Helianthemum canum

AM+ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Helianthemum guttatum

ECM+EEM

209

  Helianthemum nummularium

ECM

80

AM+ECM+EEM

260, 261

  Helianthemum ovatum

ECM

330

  Tuberaria guttata

ECM

260, 261

 Dipterocarpaceae

  Hopea mengarawan

NM

568

  Shorea balangeran

AM

568

  Shorea leprosula

ECM

14

  Shorea teysmanniana

AM

568

  Shorea uliginosa

AM

568

 Malvaceae

  Abelmoschus esculentus

AM

69

  Abutilon californicum

AM

112

  Abutilon indicum

AM

343

  Abutilon otocarpum

AM

438

  Abutilon theophrasti

AM

553

  Althaea officinalis

AM

260, 261

  Bastardiopsis densiflora

AM

651

  Gossypium hirsutum

AM

7, 649

  Gossypium tomentosum

AM

326

  Kokia kauaiensis

AM

326

  Malva sylvestris

AM

260, 261

  Thespesia populnea

AM

326

  Sida ammophila

NM+ Weak AM

438

  Sida cordifolia

AM

567

  Sida fallax

AM

326

  Sida szechuensis

AM

343

 Malvaceae (Bombacoideae)

  Adansonia digitata

AM

47

  Bombax malabaricum

AM

343

  Ceiba pentandra

AM

18

  Ceiba speciosa

AM

548

  Chorisia speciosa

AM

651

  Ochroma pyramidale

AM

321

  Pseudobombax grandiflorum

AM

651

 Malvaceae (Tilioideae)

  Corchorus tridens

AM

567

  Grewia biloba

AM

343

  Heliocarpus americanus

AM

651

  Heliocarpus appendiculatus

AM

244, 245

  Heliocarpus pallidus

AM

20

  Luehea candicans

AM

651

  Luehea divaricata

AM

651

  Luehea grandiflora

AM

548

  Luehea seemannii

AM

321

  Tilia cordata

ECM

529

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Tilia platyphyllos

ECM

549, 260, 261

  Tilia × vulgaris

ECM

260, 261

 Malvaceae (Sterculioideae)

  Eribroma oblonga

AM

445

  Guazuma ulmifolia

AM

18, 32, 651

  Pterigota macrocarpa

AM

445

  Pterospermum menglunense

AM

422

  Pterospermum yunnanensis

AM

655

  Theobroma cacao

AM

131, 321

  Waltheria indica

AM

143, 326

 Rutaceae

  Acronychia pedunculata

AM

655

  Agathosma ovata

AM

24

  Boronia thujona

AM

67

  Citrus aurantifolia

AM

400

  Citrus aurantium

AM

429

  Citrus jambhiri

AM

176

  Eriostemon australasius

AM

67

  Fagara heitzii

AM

445

  Flindersia brayleana

AM

222

  Melicope barbigera

AM

326

  Paramignya retispina

AM

655

  Zanthoxylum rhetsa

AM

315

 Meliaceae

  Azadirachta excelsa

AM

282

  Azadirachta indica

AM

255, 427, 477

  Cabralea canjerana

AM

31

  Cedrella fissilis

AM

548, 593, 651

  Chisocheton siamensis

Facultative AM

422

  Ekebergia capensis

AM

637, 638

  Entandrophragma angolense

AM

445

  Entandrophragma candollei

AM

445

  Entandrophragma cylindricum

AM

445

  Entandrophragma utile

AM

445

  Guarea cedrata

AM

445

  Guarea kunthiana

Weak AM

651

  Khaya ivorensis

AM

445

  Lansium domesticum

AM

422

  Lovoa trichilioides

AM

445

  Melia azedarach

AM

422

  Melia toosanden

NM

422

  Swietenia macrophylla

AM

433

  Trichilia casaretti

Weak AM

651

  Trichilia claussenii

Weak AM

651

  Trichilia elegans

Weak AM

651

 Simaroubaceae

  Castella peninsularis

AM

112

  Irvingia gabonensis

AM

445

 Anacardiaceae

  Anacardium excelsum

AM

321

  Anacardium occidentale

AM

27, 47

  Antrocaryon klaineanum

AM

445

  Astronium graveolens

AM

651

  Campnosperma auriculatum

AM

568

  Cyrtocarpa edulis

AM

112

  Mangifera sp.

AM

486

  Pistacia atlantica

AM

197

  Pistacia lentiscus

AM

368, 472

  Pistacia palestina

AM

197

  Pistacia terebinthus

AM

104

  Pistacia vera

AM

197

  Schinus patagonicus

AM

207

  Schinus terebinthifolius

AM

548, 651

  Sclerocarya birrea

AM

47

  Trychoscypha acuminata

AM

445

 Burseraceae

  Bursera fagaroides

NM

103

AM

112

  Bursera hindsiana

Weak AM

112

  Bursera microphylla

Weak AM

112

  Canarium schweinfurthii

AM

445

 Sapindaceae

  Acer campestre

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Acer platanoides

AM

607

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Acer pseudoplatanus

AM

465, 622

AM+ECM+NM

260, 261

  Acer rubrum

AM

140

  Acer saccharum

AM

141, 162, 470

  Aesculus hippocastanum

AM

260, 261

  Allophylus schweinfurthii

AM

445

  Aphania senegalensis

AM

47

  Blighia welwitschii

AM

445

  Cardiospermum corindum

AM

112

  Deinbollia pycnophylla

AM

445

  Dodonaea viscosa

AM

326, 343, 479

  Eriocoelum macrocarpum

AM

445

  Harpullia cupanioides

AM

655

  Lepisanthes senegalensis

Facultative AM

422

  Litchi chinensis

AM

326

  Matayba guianensis

AM

31

  Pometia tomentosa

AM

422

NM

655

  Sapindus saponaria

AM

548

Some unplaced taxa

 Bruniaceae

  Staavia radiata

AM

24

 Escalloniaceae

  Escallonia rubra

AM

207

aThe families in column 1 are divided into four groups: bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. For each group, the order of families is consistent with the phylogeny used in Fig. 1.

bThe mycorrhizal types shown in column 2 are consistent to the current widely used system of Smith and Read (1997): AM arbuscular mycorrhiza, ECM ectomycorrhiza, EEM ectendomycorrhiza, ORM orchid mycorrhiza, ERM ericoid mycorrhiza, MTM monotropoid mycorrhiza, ABM arbutoid mycorrhiza, as well as NM nonmycorrhiza, and mycoheterotrophy.

cFor the bryophytes, fungal associations were used instead of mycorrhiza: A, B, and G indicate ascomycetous, basidiomycetous, and glomeromycetous fungal associations, respectively.

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One major improvement of this review over those by Trappe (1987) and Harley and Harley (1987) is the use of a rigorously reconstructed land plant phylogeny to map the mycorrhizal information down to the family level for a worldwide coverage. Trappe (1987) covered only angiosperms, whereas Harley and Harley (1987) surveyed only the British vascular flora. Cronquist’s (1981) classification system of angiosperms used by Trappe (1987) has been significantly revised by molecular systematists (Soltis et al. 2000; Stevens 2004). Another major improvement is that information on mycorrhizal occurrence, more precisely fungal association in bryophytes, is included for the first time. Hence, this review should allow a thorough examination of origin and evolution of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plants.

Results and discussion

A total of 3,617 species from 263 families of land plants were covered in this survey of mycorrhizal status (Tables 1 and 2). For land plants as a whole, 80% of the recorded species and 92% of the families are mycorrhizal. When broken into four traditionally delimited groups (angiosperms, gymnosperms, pteridophytes, and bryophytes), these percentages vary from group to group. In angiosperms, the most species-rich clade of land plants and the dominant group in most terrestrial plant communities, 85 and 94% of species and families are mycorrhizal. These numbers are similar to those reported by Trappe (1987), whose study included more than twice as many species as this one. All of the 84 species of gymnosperms surveyed here are mycorrhizal, and almost all of them are obligately mycorrhizal. These two aspects of mycorrhizal status in gymnosperms highlight the essential role that mycorrhizas play in the life of these plants, which generally grow in nutrient-poor environments. For pteridophytes, 52 and 93% of the species and families are mycorrhizal. Finally, 46 and 71% of the bryophyte species and families have fungal associations.
Table 2

Mycorrhizal investigation of four major groups of land plants at both family and species levels

Group

Total number of families/species surveyed

No. (%) of mycorrhizal families (obligate and facultative)

No. (%) of obligately mycorrhizal species

No. (%) of facultatively mycorrhizal species

No. (%) of nonmycorrhizal families

No. (%) of nonmycorrhizal species

Bryophytes

28/143

20 (71%)

60 (42%)

6 (4%)

8 (29%)

77 (54%)

Pteriophytes

28/426

26 (93%)

185 (43%)

39 (9%)

2 (7%)

202 (47%)

Gymnosperms

12/84

12 (100%)

83 (99%)

1 (1%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

Angiosperms

195/2,964

184 (94%)

2,141 (72%)

396 (13%)

11 (6%)

427 (14%)

Sum

263/3,617

242 (92%)

2,469 (68%)

442 (12%)

21 (8%)

706 (20%)

When this body of information is projected in a plant phylogenetic perspective (Fig. 1), the origin and evolutionary patterns of mycorrhizas in land plants become quite clear. Below, we discuss these various aspects of mycorrhizal evolution in plants.
Fig. 1

A phylogenetic tree of 263 land plant families mapped with mycorrhizal information. a Non-angiosperms (including bryophytes, pteridophytes, and gymnosperms), b angiosperms except core eudicots, c core eudicots except rosids, and d rosids. For each family, the number in the column Total shows the total number of examined species; the M% column shows the percentage of obligately mycorrhizal species. The FM% column shows the percentage of facultatively mycorrhizal species, and the NM% column shows the percentage of nonmycorrhizal species. Thicker terminal branches were used to indicate 21 nonmycorrhizal families. For each of the 242 mycorrhizal families, the percentages of different types of mycorrhizae among all mycorrhizal species are shown in the M type column. The mycorrhizal types are consistent to the current widely used system of Smith and Read (1997): AM arbuscular mycorrhiza, ECM ectomycorrhiza, EEM ectendomycorrhiza, ORM orchid mycorrhiza, ERM ericoid mycorrhiza, MTM monotropoid mycorrhiza, ABM arbutoid mycorrhiza, as well as mycoheterotrophy. For the bryophytes, fungal associations were used instead of mycorrhiza: A, B, and G indicate ascomycetous, basidiomycetous, and glomeromycetous fungal associations, respectively. Families in which ectomycorrhizal species have been reported. Families in which mycoheterotrophic species have been reported

Origin of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plants

The continuous phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizas throughout land plants, with the sole major exception of mosses (Fig. 1; but see Boullard 1988 for mycorrhizoids in Takakia), tends to suggest that these plant–fungus interactions began when land plants originated. At present, there is no doubt that bryophytes preceded vascular plants during early evolution of land plants (Kenrick and Crane 1997). Furthermore, liverworts are clearly favored as the earliest divergent lineage of extant land plants according to emerging molecular evidence (Qiu et al. 1998; Dombrovska and Qiu 2004; Groth-Malonek et al. 2005; Qiu et al. unpublished), despite some lingering controversy on relationships among three bryophyte lineages: liverworts, mosses, and hornworts (see Qiu and Lee 2000; Renzaglia et al. 2000). Hence, the widespread occurrence of fungal association in liverworts deserves some attention here.

Mycorrhizas, or more precisely mycorrhizoids and mycothalli, are found in many of the liverworts that have been investigated (Pocock and Duckett 1985; Boullard 1988; Duckett et al. 1991). Several aspects of these symbioses revealed by recent studies may help clarify their evolutionary relationship to mycorrhizas in vascular plants. First, in cases where detailed ultrastructural analysis has been done, structures similar to those in the endomycorrhizas of vascular plants, i.e. arbuscules, have been observed in some liverworts (Read et al. 2000; Carafa et al. 2003; Russell and Bulman 2005). Second, cross-inoculation experiments have convincingly demonstrated that the same fungi can infect both liverworts and angiosperms and produce similar structures for either glomeromycetous or ascomycetous mycorrhizas (Read et al. 2000). Third, although isotopic tracing of nutrient, water, and carbon exchange has not been done for most liverwort–fungus symbioses, the carbon flow from Betula through the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella to the mycoheterotrophic liverwort Cryptothallus has been confirmed by a 14C feeding experiment (Bidartondo et al. 2003). Finally, the evolutionary pattern of plant–fungus symbiosis observed in angiosperms by Trappe (1987) and in vascular plants (this study), i.e., glomeromycetous mycorrhizas being the common type and occurring in early-diverging plant lineages and ascomycetous and basidiomycetous mycorrhizas being the rare type and found in late-evolving plant lineages, is also seen in liverworts (Fig. 1). These four lines of evidence indicate that even though the plant structures involved in symbiosis are probably structurally and functionally analogous between liverworts and vascular plants, the nature of the biological interaction is almost certain to be evolutionarily homologous. Besides further investigations of the functional aspects of mycorrhizas in liverworts and other bryophytes as suggested by Read et al. (2000), one line of evidence that will provide conclusive support for evolutionary homology between the mycorrhizal symbioses in bryophytes and vascular plants could come from studies of plant genes that are involved in the processes, some of which have been identified in recent studies (Stracke et al. 2002; Liu et al. 2003; Ane et al. 2004; Demchenko et al. 2004; Levy et al. 2004). If the same genes are found to control development of mycorrhizas in all groups regardless of their expression in the gametophytes of bryophytes or the sporophytes of vascular plants, and if the gene phylogenies are congruent to the plant phylogeny, the final doubt about homology of the two types of symbioses will be dispelled.

If the mycorrhizal symbiosis in liverworts, other bryophytes, such as the moss Takakia (see Boullard 1988), and hornworts proves to be homologous to that in vascular plants, it becomes obvious that mycorrhiza was indeed an important means of water and nutrient uptake adopted by the earliest land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch 1975). Fossil evidence is in agreement with such a scenario. Both glomeromycetous fungi (Redecker et al. 2000) and liverworts (Wellman et al. 2003) evolved by the Ordovician, when plants colonized the land (Kenrick and Crane 1997). Fossil mycorrhizas formed between nonseptate fungi and the protracheophyte Aglaophyton major have been uncovered from the Rhynie chert, confirming that this type of plant–fungus interaction existed at least 400 million years ago (Remy et al. 1994; Kerp et al. 2004; Taylor et al. 2005). It is possible that evolution of mycorrhiza might even have predated the origin of land plants, if fungal association in the extinct charophyte Palaeonitella (Taylor et al. 1992) is mycorrhizal. We conclude that although more work is needed to solidify the relationship between mycorrhizal symbioses in bryophytes and vascular plants, including morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of the plant–fungus interactions in both bryophytes and early vascular plants (see Read et al. 2000), all available evidence seems to point to an origin of mycorrhizas at the beginning of land plant evolution.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza is the ancestral type of mycorrhiza

When the different types of mycorrhizas are mapped onto the land plant phylogeny, it becomes clear that arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), the endomycorrhiza formed by glomeromycetous fungi and plants, is the ancestral type, as it occurs in a vast majority of plants and in all early-diverging lineages of major clades of land plants (Fig. 1). Even in bryophytes where the plant structures involved in symbiosis are rhizoids and thalli of the gametophyte, glomeromycetous fungi-mediated symbiosis results in formation of AM-like structures and is found in most early-diverging lineages of liverworts and in hornworts (Ligrone and Lopes 1989; Read et al. 2000; Russell and Bulman 2005). These two aspects of AM symbiosis suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying interaction between the plants and glomeromycetous fungi might have been established in the common ancestor of all land plants. Future molecular studies should be able to test this hypothesis to determine if the same genes are involved in plants–glomeromycetous fungi symbioses throughout land plants.

Trappe (1987) reported that AM is the ancestral type of mycorrhiza in angiosperms. Our survey, which broadens the scope to include all land plants, extends this conclusion to all land plants. This result is not likely to change even if relationships among three bryophyte lineages and vascular plants are altered (see Qiu and Lee 2000) because all of their early-diverging lineages possess AM when they are mycorrhizal. Furthermore, fossil evidence clearly indicates that AM is the most ancient type of mycorrhiza. The Devonian protracheophyte Aglaophyton major provides the best fossil record for existence of AM-like symbiosis as early as 400 million years ago; the arbuscules are visible in the protosteles of this early Devonian plant (Remy et al. 1994; Taylor et al. 2005). Fossil roots of younger age from the Triassic show that this type of symbiosis has been present continuously in early land plant evolution (Stubblefield et al. 1987). On the other hand, the oldest ectomycorrhizal fossils have so far been found only in the middle Eocene (50 million years ago) (LePage et al. 1997). The fossil record of glomeromycetous fungi, found in the Ordovician (Redecker et al. 2000), also clearly predates that of ascomycetous fungi unearthed from the Lower Devonian (Taylor et al. 1999). Given all these lines of evidence, it seems safe to conclude that AM represents the ancestral type of mycorrhiza in land plants.

Many independent conversions of arbuscular mycorrhiza to other types of mycorrhizas

If the ancestral state of AM in land plants is accepted, and further, if it can be agreed upon that the glomeromycetous fungi–plant interaction is underpinned by a genetic mechanism that has been stably inherited since its establishment in the common ancestor of all land plants, the phylogenetic distribution of AM and other types of mycorrhiza shown in Fig. 1 leads to the conclusion that there have been many independent conversions of AM to these other types of mycorrhizas. Brundrett (2002) previously proposed these evolutionary changes. In this review, we find overwhelming evidence in support of this hypothesis. Many plant lineages, ranging from pteridophytes through gymnosperms to angiosperms, contain some species that can form both AM and other types of mycorrhizas, e.g., Dryopteridaceae, Pinaceae, Gnetaceae, Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Orchidaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ericaceae, Rubiaceae, Oleaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Goodeniaceae, Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae, Grossulariaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, Salicaceae, Polygalaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, Juglandaceae, Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Cistaceae, Malvaceae, and Sapindaceae (Table 1; Fig. 1). These species might be in a transitional state from AM to other types of mycorrhizas. These other types of mycorrhizas have probably evolved as a consequence of emergence of new lineages in fungi on one side (e.g., certain groups of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) and in plants on the other side (e.g., Pinaceae, Orchidaceae, Ericaceae, Fagales, and Malvales), and the associations formed by these new lineages that were able to colonize habitats that were previously not very successfully occupied by AM plants (Malloch et al. 1980). Because these other types of mycorrhizas have been classified using both morphological and plant partner criteria (Smith and Read 1997), we follow this classification in our discussion below.

Ectomycorrhiza

Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a partnership between mostly basidiomycetous fungi and various groups of land plants. It primarily occurs in Pinaceae, Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Gnetaceae, Polygonaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Myrtaceae, Salicaceae, Fabaceae, Fagales, and Malvales. In addition, many other families of vascular plants contain a small percentage of species that form this type of mycorrhiza. Most leafy liverworts also have ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungal associations (Table 1; Fig. 1). Although ECM is much rarer than AM in land plants, among all types of mycorrhizas formed by ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi, it is the most common one. When viewed in a plant phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of ECM clearly suggests many independent origins of this type of mycorrhiza because its occurrence is sporadic throughout land plants and it is mostly found in derived lineages in major plant clades. Previously, Bruns and Shefferson (2004) estimated at least 12 independent origins of ECM within angiosperms by mapping ectomycorrhizal information provided in Smith and Read (1997) onto an angiosperm phylogeny (Soltis et al. 2000). Fitter and Moyersoen (1996) conducted a similar survey and reached a similar conclusion. Our study revealed many more events of evolution of this type of mycorrhiza in land plants (Fig. 1).

Examination of the evolutionary histories of both plants and fungi may provide some ideas to understand how this type of mycorrhiza evolved repeatedly. The plants that form ECM typically grow in nutrient-poor environments, e.g., temperate and timberline forests of both Southern and Northern Hemispheres (Malloch et al. 1980), the spruce–hemlock–redwood forest of the coastal fog belt in the Pacific Northwestern USA, the wet eucalyptus forest in Australia, and the wet dipterocarp forest of Australasia (J. Trappe, personal communication). Phylogenetically, these plants represent derived lineages of some major land plant clades that once lived in a less nutrient-deficient environment, e.g., Pinaceae and Cupressaceae, as opposed to other conifers such as Cephalotaxaceae, Taxaceae, and Taxodiaceae, and Fagales and some Malvales vs other rosids. Meanwhile, the fungal species that participate in ECM symbiosis evolved repeatedly from saprotrophic homobasidiomycetes and also reverted to free-living condition many times independently (Hibbett et al. 2000), and they also represent derived lineages of fungi as a whole (Lutzoni et al. 2004). Thus, evolution of ECM could be viewed as an adaptation by those major plant clades to the change of environment when the climate on earth became more seasonal and arid (Hickey and Doyle 1977; Malloch et al. 1980), which immobilized nutrients, or simply as an adaptation to the environments that were limited in nutrient availability. From these considerations, it may be argued that the plasticity exhibited by ECM evolution reflects the opportunistic nature of a collective response by both plant and fungal partners to environmental challenges. This seems to be a short-term evolutionary strategy in comparison to AM, which clearly represents a major evolutionary innovation to solve a permanent water-and-nutrients deficiency problem faced by plants when they first made the virtually irreversible invasion onto the land in the Ordovician.

The very different evolutionary pattern of ECM from that of AM might suggest a different underlying genetic mechanism. Also, the structure is quite different between the two types of mycorrhizas. In ECM, the fungal hyphae do not penetrate the cell wall, and instead form a Hartig net (an intercellular meshwork in the root epidermis and cortex) and a sheath around the root derived from this net. On the other hand, the fungal hyphae in AM penetrate the cell wall and often form arbuscules. At present, little is known about the molecular genetic basis of ECM development. All plant genes involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis identified so far control AM development (Stracke et al. 2002; Liu et al. 2003; Ane et al. 2004; Demchenko et al. 2004; Levy et al. 2004). One of these genes has a homolog in the moss Physcomitrella patens and several other early land plants (Wang and Qiu, unpublished data). Hence, it can be inferred that there might be a general genetic program in plants that mediates plant–fungus interaction, a small portion of which might even be involved in plant–fungal pathogen interaction as well (Harrison 1999). This program was most likely established at the beginning of land plant evolution, if not earlier, and mostly targets glomeromycetous fungi. It has been inherited in land plants since its inception and is responsible for the prevalence of AM seen today. When ECM evolved in a particular plant lineage, the homobasidiomycetous fungi might have adopted much of this general genetic program, but also modified some aspects of it to suit a slightly different plant–fungus partnership. One intriguing question is how different plant lineages, particularly those as diverse as ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, adapted the general genetic program for ECM development, as the structures of mycorrhizas are apparently very similar between these diverse lineages. Perhaps different genes are involved in each case, thus, the host specificity developed with different fungal symbionts in each case of ECM (as opposed to AM). Indeed, difference in gene expression was observed to be related to host specificity (Le Quere et al. 2004). Future work will likely reveal more details to help us understand how many independent conversions of ECM from AM had occurred.

The ericaceous mycorrhizas and their close relationship to ectomycorrhiza

There are six types of mycorrhizas in Ericaceae. With the exception of AM, five of them are partnerships between ascomycetous or basidiomycetous fungi and plants: ECM, ectendomycorrhiza (EEM), arbutoid mycorrhiza (ABM), monotropoid mycorrhiza (MTM), and ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM). Among these five types, ECM occurs in many plant lineages outside of Ericaceae (see above), and EEM is found in Pinaceae, Araucariaceae, Ericaceae, Salicaceae, Fabaceae, Betulaceae, and Cistaceae (Fig. 1). ABM, MTM, and ERM can be deemed to be genuinely ericaceous mycorrhizas, as they occur almost exclusively in this family. The only exception is ERM, which has also been found in Diapensiaceae, a close relative of Ericaceae. The ericaceous mycorrhizas share many characteristics with ECM, but exhibit a high degree of intracellular penetration (Smith and Read 1997). Brundrett (2002) suggested that ABM, MTM, and ERM were derived from ECM. Our mapping of ECM and these other types of mycorrhizas onto the land plant phylogeny and examination of their distribution within Ericaceae supports this interpretation. Further, we add that EEM probably represents a transitional stage between ECM and the three types of ericaceous mycorrhizas, ABM, MTM, and ERM, as ECM and EEM are found only in the basal lineages of Ericaceae, Monotropoideae, and Arbutoideae (Kron et al. 2002).

Previous studies have identified the fungal symbionts of the ericaceous mycorrhizas. One interesting phenomenon is that the fungal strains isolated from these three types of mycorrhizas can also form ECM with other plant species (reviewed by Smith and Read 1997). This observation strongly suggests a close relationship between ECM and the ericaceous mycorrhizas. An interesting question that arises is why the same fungi cannot penetrate into root cells of ectomycorrhizal hosts yet are able to do so with ericaceous plants. One answer could be that host plants play an important role in controlling development of different types of mycorrhizas.

Orchid mycorrhiza

Orchid mycorrhiza (ORM) is generally thought to be restricted to the Orchidaceae, which involve mostly basidiomycetous fungi (Leake 1994). Occurrence of this type of mycorrhiza in other plants such as the subterranean nonphotosynthetic liverwort Cryptothallus mirabilis (Ligrone et al. 1993; Bidartondo et al. 2003) and the monocot Thismia sp. (Brundrett 2002 see http://www.ffp.csiro.au/research/mycorrhiza/) probably represents functional and structural convergence, as the fungal partners are of different types than those of the true ORM in Orchidaceae (Leake 1994). In this perspective, ORM, like the ericaceous mycorrhizas discussed above, can be considered to occur exclusively in one plant family, Orchidaceae, and probably represents a highly specialized type of ectomycorrhiza. One fact supporting this idea is that some species of lower Epidendroideae, an early-diverging lineage within Orchidaceae (Cameron et al. 1999), still have ECM (Bidartondo et al. 2004; Selosse et al. 2004).

Did evolution of ectomycorrhiza and its derived types of mycorrhizas spur diversification of plant lineages that harbor these symbiotic systems?

If AM was instrumental in the origin and subsequent diversification of land plants in a newly exploited niche, did evolution of ECM and its derived types of mycorrhizas, which involve Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, contribute to diversification of plant lineages that forged these new partnerships? Our review provides a rather positive answer to this question. In plant families where ECM and its derivatives are the main types of mycorrhizas or account for a significant percentage (>20%), e.g., Pinaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Ericaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Salicaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Cistaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Myrtaceae, and Melastomataceae (Mabberley 1987), the species number is often high to very high in comparison to their close relatives that have AM (Fig. 1). In the case of woody plants, the members of these families are often dominant species in their communities (Malloch et al. 1980). Although there are many factors that may affect speciation rate, we believe that the correlation between high occurrence rate of ECM and its derived types of mycorrhizas and the species richness of plant clades that harbor these symbiotic systems are not coincidental. This observation becomes particularly striking when compared to mycoheterotrophy, another type of plant–fungus symbiosis, which will be discussed below. Because ascomycetous and basidiomycetous mycorrhizal fungi have a much higher host specificity than glomeromycetous fungi (Horton and Bruns 1998; Newton and Haigh 1998; Bidartondo and Bruns 2002), diversification of the plant hosts had likely in turn driven the speciation rate of the fungal symbionts. This coevolutionary arms race probably explains the large number of Basidiomycetes that are ectomycorrhizal today (Molina et al. 1992). In comparison, AM has obviously contributed very little to the diversification of glomeromycetous fungi, and the relatively low host specificity of these fungi may be to blame.

Mycoheterotrophy

Mycoheterotrophy represents a shift of balanced mutualistic symbiosis between plants and fungi toward an exploitative use of mycorrhizal fungi by plants that are no longer fully photosynthetic (Leake 1994). It is clearly a derived condition in mycorrhizal evolution. In our survey, we found that mycoheterotrophy had evolved many times independently in land plants, in the following families: Aneuraceae, Podocarpaceae, Petrosaviaceae, Burmanniaceae, Triuridiaceae, Corsiaceae, Orchidaceae, Ericaceae (Monotropoideae), Gentianaceae, and Polygalaceae (Fig. 1). The mycoheterotrophy in the moss genus Buxbaumia needs more thorough investigation (Leake 1994). In addition, gametophytes of Lycopodium, Psilotum, and Botrychium are also mycoheterotrophic (reviewed by Brundrett 2002). However, it has been suggested that mycoheterotrophy in these latter cases and most species of Orchidaceae may be different from that in other plant groups mentioned above (Bidartondo 2005) because these plants only engage in mycoheterotrophy for a part of their life cycles during establishment, and they are photosynthetic for the rest of their life cycles and enter mutualistic symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi.

The independent evolution of mycoheterotrophy in many unrelated lineages of land plants is further underscored by the fact that it evolved repeatedly from AM and ECM and ECM-derived types of mycorrhizas (Fig. 1). Hence, evolution of mycoheterotrophy reinforces the evolutionary parallelism commonly seen in mycorrhizal evolution, which has dominated evolution of ECM as discussed above and loss of mycorrhiza to be discussed below. Although one may think that an exploitative relationship such as mycoheterotrophy can be evolutionarily unstable, which seems to be supported by the general paucity of species in most clades of mycoheterotrophic plants (Leake 1994), this unique type of interaction among more than two species of very different modes of nutrition uptake (autotrophy and heterotrophy) might have played a special role to facilitate some major transitions during land plant evolution. In the case of lycophytes and ferns, mycoheterotrophy probably helped to ease the transition from a gametophyte generation-dominant life cycle in bryophytes to a sporophyte generation-dominant life cycle in vascular plants. For most Orchidaceae, mycoheterotrophy has perhaps alleviated the problem of extremely small size of the seeds, which can be advantageous for dispersal but at the same time, limits nutrition packaging for the next generation, and thus has probably contributed significantly to the success of the family. These two examples once again highlight the important roles played by fungi not only in the origin, but also in many subsequent radiations of land plant evolution.

Many independent losses of mycorrhiza in land plants

Many families of land plants have not been found to form mycorrhizas with fungi in their natural habitats. In liverworts, no fungal association has been observed in Blasiaceae, Ricciaceae, Metzgeriaceae, Radulaceae, Porellaceae, Jubuliaceae, Lejeuneaceae, or Herbertaceae. In pteridophytes, species in Isoetaceae and Azollaceae are nonmycorrhizal. Similarly in angiosperms, species in Nymphaeaceae, Butomaceae, Limnocharitaceae, Cyclanthaceae, Cannaceae, Loranthaceae, Loasaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Menyanthaceae, Adoxaceae, Eryothroxylaceae, and Bataceae are nonmycorrhizal. In addition, nonmycorrhizal species occur together with mycorrhizal species in many families, and approximately half of the ten or more species examined in the following families are nonmycorrhizal: Geocalycaceae, Jungermanniaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Pteridaceae, Adiantaceae, Aspleniaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Polypodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, and Brassicaceae (Table 1, Fig. 1). The fact that these families are deeply embedded among mycorrhizal families and are not closely related to each other provides convincing evidence that these plants lost their ability to form mycorrhiza independently.

There are two interesting features for phylogenetic distribution of nonmycorrhizal plants. One is that leafy liverworts and pteridophytes in general tend to have a high concentration of nonmycorrhizal species. Of course, mosses, as an entire clade, lack mycorrhiza as well (Read et al. 2000) except Takakia (Boullard 1988). Gymnosperms, on the other hand, are all mycorrhizal and almost all obligately mycorrhizal. Angiosperms generally are also mycorrhizal, and have only a few groups that have a high percentage of nonmycorrhizal species, alismatids (including Araceae according to Stevens’ (2004) new classification system, see Fig. 1b), Cyperaceae, caryophyllids, and Brassicaceae. This feature may be related to the fact that early land plants had not fully adapted to the symbiotic system with the fungi. Indeed, these plants generally have the Paris-type AM, which lacks well-developed systems of intercellular hyphae and do not always form arbuscules (Read et al. 2000). It will be interesting to see if future studies can demonstrate that a simpler genetic system is behind this rather unstable symbiotic relationship in basal land plants. The other feature is that almost all nonmycorrhizal plants are derived from ancestors that engaged in AM symbiosis. In the several families where ECM and ECM-derived mycorrhizas dominate or account for a large percentage, e.g., Pinaceae, Orchidaceae, Ericaceae, Myrtaceae, Salicaceae, Fagales, and Cistaceae, very few species are nonmycorrhizal. This feature is perhaps related to the highly specialized nature of the ECM symbiosis.

As to the mechanisms responsible for mycorrhizal loss, Trappe (1987) noticed several characters that tend to be shared by nonmycorrhizal species, and his observations still hold true here. First, many nonmycorrhizal vascular plants grow in aquatic or wetland habitat. In these environments, both nutrients and water supplies are not as limited as in the typical terrestrial environment. Hence, the plants can develop independence from the fungal symbionts and reduce the carbon cost that would normally be provided to the fungal partners in exchange for nutrients and water. The loss of mycorrhiza in alismatids and other aquatic plants likely occurred through this mechanism. Second, species that grow in nutrient-rich environments tend to be nonmycorrhizal. The ruderals in caryophyllids, Brassicaceae, and Crassulaceae, and the spring ephemerals in Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, and Saxifragaceae belong to this category. Third, the plants that have a long, fine, and highly branched root system with well-developed root hairs also have a high tendency to become nonmycorrhizal. Cyperaceae and the ruderals perhaps developed independence from fungal symbionts through this route. It has been suggested that root hairs and mycorrhizal fungi were two alternative mechanisms for plant nutrient uptake (Baylis 1970; Koide 1991). If a plant can absorb sufficient nutrients through its own root hairs, any genetic changes preventing the formation of mycorrhiza with fungi would be favorably selected. Besides these three observations made by Trappe (1987), we also noticed that many liverworts that lack fungal association are leaf and bark epiphytes, e.g., Radulaceae, Jubulaceae, Porellaceae, and Lejeuneaceae. A possible explanation could be that fungal development is thwarted by defense mechanisms of the plant on which these epiphytes live.

Areas of further study

This study and those by Trappe (1987) and Harley and Harley (1987) represent the three most extensive surveys of mycorrhizal occurrence in land plants, but the total number of species included in the three studies is only slightly over 10,000 (assuming that there is little overlap among the three surveys), which is about 3% of all listed land plant species that live on our planet. As can be seen from Table 1 and Fig. 1, for most plant families we have knowledge of the mycorrhizal status for only one or a few species. Hence, the first area that deserves more attention in the future is the investigation of mycorrhizal status of more species. From this study and those by Trappe (1987) and Harley and Harley (1987), as well as several reviews published earlier on this topic (Pirozynski and Malloch 1975; Malloch et al. 1980; Selosse and Le Tacon 1998; Read et al. 2000; Brundrett 2002), it is clear that mycorrhizas were instrumental in the origin and subsequent diversification of land plants and are continuing to play a vital role in maintaining floristic diversity and ecosystem function on earth. Thus, mycorrhizal symbiosis should be viewed as an integral part of any floristic, ecological, or evolutionary studies in the future.

Besides the general increase of mycorrhizal research, a few specific areas should be pursued. First, more basal land plants should be investigated, as they occupy an especially important position in our understanding of the origin of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plants. Despite several studies on basal land plants (Pocock and Duckett 1985; Duckett et al. 1991; Read et al. 2000), our knowledge on phylogenetically critically positioned taxa such as Treubiaceae, many simple thalloid liverworts, mosses, and some hornworts, remains fragmentary. In this regard, mosses deserve special attention, as they represent the only major clade of land plants that is nonmycorrhizal (Read et al. 2000), a situation which by itself is very puzzling. Several basal moss lineages such as Andreaeaceae, Tetraphidaceae, Polytrichaceae, Buxbaumiaceae, and Diphysciaceae all grow on nutrient-poor, sandy soil or rocks. It will be interesting to know how they manage to grow on these poor substrates if they are truly nonmycorrhizal. Takakia, a sister group to all other mosses, is reported to be mycorrhizal (Boullard 1988) and grows on thin soil and rocks (Gao 2000). Second, several early-diverging lineages of angiosperms, Amborella, Austrobaileyales, Chloranthaceae, and magnoliids should be investigated; the information on their mycorrhizal status is currently lacking. Even when Trappe’s (1987) survey is included, our knowledge of these plants is still quite poor. A focused study on these plants will fill an important gap in our understanding of mycorrhizal evolution in early angiosperms. Finally, as we learn more from studies of model organisms such as legumes (Stracke et al. 2002; Liu et al. 2003; Ane et al. 2004; Demchenko et al. 2004; Levy et al. 2004), characterization of molecular aspects of mycorrhizas in nonmodel organisms will significantly expand the dimension and depth of our knowledge of this important symbiotic system. In summary, the mycorrhizal research conducted over the last several decades has brought this long neglected field into mainstream biology, and future research will undoubtedly further enhance our understanding of this important biological interaction and its impact on the evolution of both plants and fungi, as well as the establishment and functioning of the terrestrial ecosystem.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Rong-rong Xu for helping with figure preparation, Malini Jane Sridharan for critically reading the manuscript, and Jim Trappe and two reviewers for their insightful comments. This work was supported by an Early Career Award (DEB 0332298) and ATOL grants (DEB 0431239, DEB 0531689) from NSF to Y-L Qiu.

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© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyThe University Herbarium, University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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